There are many ways to prevent hepatitis, from getting a vaccine to washing your hands well. But it all depends on what type you have. There are three major kinds of this liver disease -- hepatitis A, B, and C -- and each one spreads in a different way.
How to Prevent Hepatitis A
You can get hepatitis A if you eat food or drink water that has the hepatitis A virus in it. You could also get infected if you're in close physical contact with someone who has the disease or have sex with someone who has it.
The best way to prevent hepatitis A is to get a vaccine. Kids should get a shot around their first birthday.
As an adult, you should get the shot if you:
- Travel to Africa, Asia (except Japan), the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central and South America, Mexico, and parts of the Caribbean
- Use recreational drugs
- Are in the military
- Work in a day care center, nursing home, or you're a health care professional
- Are a man who has sex with men
- Have long-term liver disease
- Take blood products to treat hemophilia or other conditions
If you're planning a trip to a place where there are outbreaks of hepatitis A, keep in mind that the vaccine only starts to work 2 to 4 weeks after you get it. And if you want long-term protection, you'll need a follow-up shot 6 to 12 months later.
If you didn't get your hepatitis A vaccine a month before you travel, you may be able to get a shot of hepatitis A immune globulin before you leave. This may prevent hepatitis A infection if you get it within 2 weeks before or after you come into contact with the virus.
If you're traveling to places where the virus is common, be careful about what you eat and drink. Unclean water and ice, as well as fruits, veggies, and undercooked foods, are common causes of hepatitis A infections. This means you should:
- Avoid "street" food.
- Only drink bottled water and use it to brush your teeth. You can also boil your tap water for at least 1 minute.
- Don't sip on cocktails and other drinks with ice cubes.
- Skip dairy products and undercooked meat and fish.
- Don't order salads or fresh fruit from restaurants, since you don’t know if it was washed with clean water.
- Peel and wash your own greens using bottled water.
- Wash your hands well after you go to the restroom, change diapers, or before you eat or serve food.
Be extra careful if you work at a day care center or any place where lots of people are in close quarters, especially if you're in contact with an infected person's stool, blood, saliva, or other body fluids.
How to Prevent Hepatitis B
You can get hepatitis B if you have contact with the blood, semen, or other body fluids of someone who's infected. A common way it spreads is through sex or sharing needles with a person who has the disease.
You can prevent infection with a vaccine. The CDC recommends that babies get their first dose shortly after they're born. They'll need follow-up shots when they're between 6 and 18 months old. Kids under age 19 who missed any shots in the series should get catch-up doses.
If you haven't had a hepatitis B shot as an adult, it's important to get it if you:
- Have kidney disease, long-term liver disease, or are infected with HIV
- Have more than one sex partner
- Are a man who has sex with men
- Inject illicit drugs
- Work in health care
- Live with someone who has hepatitis B
- Travel to a country with outbreaks of hepatitis B
Besides a vaccine, the best way to prevent hepatitis B is to avoid contact with other people's blood and body fluids. That means:
If you think you may have been infected with hepatitis B and you never had a vaccine, let your doctor know. You may be able to prevent an infection if you get a hepatitis B immune globulin shot. If you think you may have picked picked up hepatitis B through sex, you'll need to get this shot within 14 days. If your infection is from other causes, you'll need to get the shot within 24 hours.
How to Prevent Hepatitis C
There's no vaccine for hepatitis C. And because most people don't have symptoms for years, many don't know they've been infected.
Take these steps to protect yourself from catching hepatitis C:
- If you use illicit drugs, don't share needles.
- Know your partner's sexual history. If you think they may be infected, get tested.
- Use a condom when you have sex.