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What types of surgery treat ulcerative colitis?

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Surgery to remove the entire colon is called a colectomy. Surgery to remove both the colon and rectum is a proctocolectomy. Both can be used to treat ulcerative colitis. These surgeries are also performed to eliminate the threat of colon cancer. Colon cancer is common in people with ulcerative colitis. Proctocolectomy is considered the standard treatment when surgery for ulcerative colitis is needed.

If the entire colon is removed, the surgeon may create an opening, or stoma, in the abdominal wall. The tip of the lower small intestine is brought through the stoma. An external bag, or pouch, is attached to the stoma. This is called a permanent ileostomy. Stools pass through this opening and collect in the pouch. The pouch must be worn at all times.

Another procedure is the pelvic pouch or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). This is a procedure that does not require a permanent stoma. This surgery is also called a restorative proctocolectomy. The patient is still able to eliminate stool through the anus. In this procedure, the colon and rectum are removed. Then the small intestine is used to form an internal pouch or reservoir -- called a J-pouch -- that will serve as a new rectum. This pouch is connected to the anus. This procedure is frequently done in two operations. In between the operations the patient needs a temporary ileostomy.

The continent ileostomy, or Kock pouch, is an option for people who would like their ileostomy converted to an internal pouch. It's also an option for people who do not qualify for the IPAA procedure. In this procedure, there is a stoma but no bag. The colon and rectum are removed, and an internal reservoir is created from the small intestine. An opening is made in the abdominal wall, and the reservoir is then joined to the skin with a nipple valve. To drain the pouc76,webmd_20170703,Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis,WebMD,091e9c5e80293cd3,,,What are the benefits of surgery for ulcerative colitis?,"If the entire colon and rectum are removed, ulcerative colitis is cured. This should put an end to the diarrhea, abdominal pains, anemia, and other symptoms.

In addition, this surgical procedure prevents colon cancer. Overall, an estimated 5% of ulcerative colitis patients will develop cancer. The elimination of the colon cancer threat is especially significant for people who have ulcerative colitis that affects the entire colon. In these cases, as opposed to cases of ulcerative colitis that affects only the lower colon and the rectum, the cancer risk without surgery could be up to 32 times the normal rate.

From: Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES:

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House: "Ulcerative Colitis."

Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America: "Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis."

American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons: "Ulcerative Colitis."

Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson on November 25, 2018

SOURCES:

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House: "Ulcerative Colitis."

Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America: "Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis."

American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons: "Ulcerative Colitis."

Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson on November 25, 2018

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What are the complications of ulcerative colitis surgeries?

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