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What are the causes of post-testicular azoospermia?

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In men who have post-testicular azoospermia, the testicles make normal sperm, but something keeps the sperm from getting out, such as:

  • Blockage in the tubes that carry sperm from your testicles to your penis. This is called obstructive azoospermia.
  • Vasectomy
  • Retrograde ejaculation, when semen goes into the bladder

SOURCES:

American Urological Association: “The Evaluation of the Azoospermic Male: AUA Best Practice Statement.”

American Family Physician: “Epididymitis and Orchitis: An Overview.”

UCSF: “In Vitro Fertilization,” “Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.”

Reproduction, Fertility and Development: “Causes of azoospermia and their management.”

The Urology Clinics of North America : “Obstructive Azoospermia.”

Clinics: “Obstructive azoospermia: reconstructive techniques and results.”

Indian Journal of Urology: “Surgical Sperm Retrieval: Techniques and Their Indications.”

Reviewed by Sabrina Felson on May 09, 2019

SOURCES:

American Urological Association: “The Evaluation of the Azoospermic Male: AUA Best Practice Statement.”

American Family Physician: “Epididymitis and Orchitis: An Overview.”

UCSF: “In Vitro Fertilization,” “Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.”

Reproduction, Fertility and Development: “Causes of azoospermia and their management.”

The Urology Clinics of North America : “Obstructive Azoospermia.”

Clinics: “Obstructive azoospermia: reconstructive techniques and results.”

Indian Journal of Urology: “Surgical Sperm Retrieval: Techniques and Their Indications.”

Reviewed by Sabrina Felson on May 09, 2019

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What are the treatments for azoospermia?

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