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What causes popcorn lung?

ANSWER

Many chemicals can cause popcorn lung, especially diacetyl, found in microwave popcorn and electronic cigarettes, and acetaldehyde, found in the smoke from marijuana and some electronic cigarettes

Other causes are:

  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • A lung transplant

SOURCES: 

NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: "Bronchiolitis obliterans."

American Lung Association: "Popcorn Lung: A Dangerous Risk of Flavored E-Cigarettes."

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health: "Flavorings-Related Lung Disease."

National Jewish Health: "Bronchiolitis Obliterans."

Toxicology Reports: "Pathology, toxicology, and latency of irritant gases known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans disease: Does diacetyl fit the pattern?"

EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives: "Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes."

Environmental Protection Agency: "Sulfur Dioxide."

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: "Occupational and Environmental Bronchiolar Disorders."

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: "Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome -- The Achilles' Heel of Lung Transplantation."

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: "Rheumatoid Lung Disease."

Reviewed by Louise Chang on April 21, 2019

SOURCES: 

NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: "Bronchiolitis obliterans."

American Lung Association: "Popcorn Lung: A Dangerous Risk of Flavored E-Cigarettes."

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health: "Flavorings-Related Lung Disease."

National Jewish Health: "Bronchiolitis Obliterans."

Toxicology Reports: "Pathology, toxicology, and latency of irritant gases known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans disease: Does diacetyl fit the pattern?"

EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives: "Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes."

Environmental Protection Agency: "Sulfur Dioxide."

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: "Occupational and Environmental Bronchiolar Disorders."

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: "Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome -- The Achilles' Heel of Lung Transplantation."

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: "Rheumatoid Lung Disease."

Reviewed by Louise Chang on April 21, 2019

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What is another common cause of popcorn lung?

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