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How is stage II chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated?

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Managing COPD can be complex, so you'll need to work closely with your doctor. The goal is to relieve your symptoms, keep your lungs working as well as possible, and prevent flare-ups.

For stage II, the main treatments are:

  • Medicine
  • Pulmonary rehab
  • Managing flare-ups

From: Stage II (Moderate Stage) COPD WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES:

Oklahoma Department of Human Services: "Stages of COPD and Spirometric Classifications."

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: "What You Can Do About a Lung Disease Called COPD," "Pocket Guide to COPD Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention."

Medscape: "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)."

COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : "Fatigue in COPD and the Impact of Respiratory Symptoms and Heart Disease -- A Population-based Study."

National Jewish Health: "COPD."

National Sleep Foundation: "COPD and Difficulty Breathing."

Mayo Clinic: "COPD."

NIH, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: "COPD."

American Thoracic Society: "COPD Today," "Exacerbation of COPD."

YourLungHealth.org: "Stages of COPD."

American Family Physician: "Management of COPD Exacerbations."

Merck Manual, Professional Version: "Treatment of Acute COPD Exacerbation."

Cleveland Clinic: "4 Biggest Myths About Your COPD -- and How to Cope."

Reviewed by Melinda Ratini on February 14, 2018

SOURCES:

Oklahoma Department of Human Services: "Stages of COPD and Spirometric Classifications."

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: "What You Can Do About a Lung Disease Called COPD," "Pocket Guide to COPD Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention."

Medscape: "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)."

COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : "Fatigue in COPD and the Impact of Respiratory Symptoms and Heart Disease -- A Population-based Study."

National Jewish Health: "COPD."

National Sleep Foundation: "COPD and Difficulty Breathing."

Mayo Clinic: "COPD."

NIH, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: "COPD."

American Thoracic Society: "COPD Today," "Exacerbation of COPD."

YourLungHealth.org: "Stages of COPD."

American Family Physician: "Management of COPD Exacerbations."

Merck Manual, Professional Version: "Treatment of Acute COPD Exacerbation."

Cleveland Clinic: "4 Biggest Myths About Your COPD -- and How to Cope."

Reviewed by Melinda Ratini on February 14, 2018

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What are some complications of stage II chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

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