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What is stage 4 emphysema under the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) standard?

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Emphysema stages are a measure of how well you can breathe. Under the GOLD standard, stage 4 is when the amount of air you can breathe out in 1 second after taking a big breath is less than 30% of the average of a healthy person.

Reviewed by Paul Boyce on November 05, 2019

Medically Reviewed on 11/05/2019

SOURCES:

American Lung Association: “Nutrition and COPD.”

CDC: “Spirometry Reference Value Calculator.”

Cleveland Clinic: “Nutritional Guidelines for People with COPD,” “Emphysema.”

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: “Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: 2019 Report.”

Harvard Health Publishing: “Emphysema.”

Mayo Clinic: “Emphysema,” “Spirometry.”

NIH: News in Health: “Oxygen Therapy for Patients with COPD.”

UpToDate: “Multidimensional assessment of COPD,” “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Definition, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and staging.”

Johns Hopkins University: “Emphysema.”

Reviewed by Paul Boyce on November 05, 2019

SOURCES:

American Lung Association: “Nutrition and COPD.”

CDC: “Spirometry Reference Value Calculator.”

Cleveland Clinic: “Nutritional Guidelines for People with COPD,” “Emphysema.”

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: “Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: 2019 Report.”

Harvard Health Publishing: “Emphysema.”

Mayo Clinic: “Emphysema,” “Spirometry.”

NIH: News in Health: “Oxygen Therapy for Patients with COPD.”

UpToDate: “Multidimensional assessment of COPD,” “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Definition, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and staging.”

Johns Hopkins University: “Emphysema.”

Reviewed by Paul Boyce on November 05, 2019

NEXT QUESTION:

How serious is stage 4 emphysema under the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) standard?

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