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What are the uses and limitations of an antiphospholipid antibodies test for lupus?

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Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLs) are a type of antibody directed against phospholipids. APLs are present in up to 60% of people with lupus. Their presence can help confirm a diagnosis. A positive test is also used to help identify women with lupus that have certain risks that require preventive treatment and monitoring. Those risks include blood clots, miscarriage, or preterm birth. Keep in mind, APLs may also occur in people without lupus. Their presence alone is not enough for a lupus diagnosis.

From: Lab Tests for Lupus WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES:

Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital: "Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)."

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: "Lupus: A Patient Care Guide for Nurses and Other Health Professionals, 3rd Edition."

Lupus Foundation of America: "Lab Tests."

NYU School of Medicine: "Neonatal Lupus."

Lupus Alliance of America: "Laboratory Tests for Lupus."

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh: "Diagnosing Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases."

Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation.

Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson on October 23, 2017

SOURCES:

Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital: "Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)."

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: "Lupus: A Patient Care Guide for Nurses and Other Health Professionals, 3rd Edition."

Lupus Foundation of America: "Lab Tests."

NYU School of Medicine: "Neonatal Lupus."

Lupus Alliance of America: "Laboratory Tests for Lupus."

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh: "Diagnosing Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases."

Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation.

Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson on October 23, 2017

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What are the uses and limitations of an anti-Sm test for lupus?

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