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What causes waxy flexibility?

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Waxy flexibility is one of the less common symptoms of catatonia. That�s a condition that can make it hard for you to move and speak. Catatonic symptoms are most often linked to schizophrenia. But that�s only one of many causes. You can get them if you have another medical condition or serious mental illness, like bipolar disorder.

SOURCES:

Max Fink, MD, professor of psychiatry and neurology emeritus, Stoney Brook University School of Medicine.

William T. Carpenter, MD, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology, University of Maryland.

Journal of Psychopathology : “Catatonia from the first descriptions to DSM 5.”

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry : “Movement disorders in catatonia.”

The Lancet Psychiatry : “Structure and neural mechanisms of catatonia.”

Dementia & Neuropsychologia : “Catatonia, beyond a psychiatric syndrome.”

Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice : “Catatonia in a patient with bipolar disorder type 1.”

CNS Spectrums : “Catatonia.”

World Journal of Psychiatry : “Catatonia: Our current understanding of its diagnosis, treatment and pathophysiology.”

Mayo Clinic: “EEG (electroencephalogram).”

Encephale: “Catatonia with schizophrenia: From ECT to rTMS.”

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment : “Systematic review of catatonia treatment.”

American Psychiatric Association: “What is Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?”

European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience : “Response rate of catatonia to electroconvulsive therapy and its clinical correlates.”

General Hospital Psychiatry : “Catatonia in Resource Limited Settings: A Case Series and Treatment Protocol.”

Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari on January 16, 2020

SOURCES:

Max Fink, MD, professor of psychiatry and neurology emeritus, Stoney Brook University School of Medicine.

William T. Carpenter, MD, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology, University of Maryland.

Journal of Psychopathology : “Catatonia from the first descriptions to DSM 5.”

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry : “Movement disorders in catatonia.”

The Lancet Psychiatry : “Structure and neural mechanisms of catatonia.”

Dementia & Neuropsychologia : “Catatonia, beyond a psychiatric syndrome.”

Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice : “Catatonia in a patient with bipolar disorder type 1.”

CNS Spectrums : “Catatonia.”

World Journal of Psychiatry : “Catatonia: Our current understanding of its diagnosis, treatment and pathophysiology.”

Mayo Clinic: “EEG (electroencephalogram).”

Encephale: “Catatonia with schizophrenia: From ECT to rTMS.”

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment : “Systematic review of catatonia treatment.”

American Psychiatric Association: “What is Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?”

European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience : “Response rate of catatonia to electroconvulsive therapy and its clinical correlates.”

General Hospital Psychiatry : “Catatonia in Resource Limited Settings: A Case Series and Treatment Protocol.”

Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari on January 16, 2020

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How is waxy flexibility treated?

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