Spider veins are smaller, red, purple, and blue vessels that are also twisted and turning. Spider veins are easily visible through the skin as well. They are most often seen on the legs, chest, or face.
Causes of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins
A number of things make a person more likely to have varicose veins. These include:
- Heredity (passed on from a parent to a child through genes)
- A history of blood clots
- Hormonal influences during pregnancy, puberty, and menopause
- The use of birth control pills
- Postmenopausal hormonal replacement
- Occupations that involve a lot of standing, such as seen among health care providers, hair stylists, teachers, and factory workers
- Conditions that cause increased pressure in the belly area, including tumors, constipation, and externally worn garments like girdles
Other reported causes include trauma or injury to the skin, previous vein surgery, and exposure to ultraviolet rays.
Other Risk Factors for Varicose Veins
Varicose veins happen more often in women than in men. They get more frequent with age. An estimated 23% of adults in the United States have varicose veins, but they're generally not a problem.
Symptoms of Varicose Veins
Many patients with varicose veins complain of pain, described as an aching or cramping in the legs. Other common symptoms include tiredness, restlessness, burning, throbbing, tingling, or heaviness in the legs. Pain caused by varicose veins is usually relieved by raising the legs or by wearing support hose.
You also may have swelling, ulcers (large sores), and more pigmentation or darkening of the color of your skin, especially in the ankle region. Occasionally, varicose veins can form a painful blood clot with inflammation of the vein called thrombophlebitis.
Symptoms may be worse during certain parts of the menstrual cycle or during pregnancy.
Treatment Options for Varicose Veins
Treatment options for varicose veins include:
- Wearing support stockings. The most conservative approach is simply to wear properly fitting support hose, especially when the veins cause painful or uncomfortable symptoms. You can usually buy these stockings at a surgical supply store and at some pharmacies. They come in below-the-knee, above-the-knee, and pantyhose styles.
- Making lifestyle changes. Good skin hygiene, weight loss (if needed), and walking can help treat varicose veins. Eating a low-salt diet helps reduce water retention and swelling.
- Sclerotherapy. This procedure, which has been available since the 1930s, uses a highly concentrated saline (salt) solution or a specially made detergent that is injected directly into the vein, causing the vein to disappear gradually over 3 to 6 weeks. The procedure is simple, relatively inexpensive, and can be performed in an outpatient setting.
- Endovenous laser treatment. A small laser fiber is inserted into the vein so that pulses of laser light can be delivered inside the vein, which causes the vein to collapse. The procedure is done as an outpatient under local anesthesia.
- Radiofrequency occlusion. During this procedure, a small catheter is inserted into the vein to deliver radiofrequency energy to the vein wall, causing it to heat, collapse, and seal shut. The procedure is generally done in an outpatient or in-office setting and may be done under local anesthesia.
- Surgery. Surgical techniques to treat varicose veins include ligation (tying off of a vein) and stripping (removal of a long segment of vein), ambulatory phlebectomy, which allows for the removal of large surface veins through very small cuts that do not need stitches, and endoscopic vein surgery. Surgery may be performed using local, spinal, or general anesthesia. Most patients return home the same day as the procedure. Surgery is generally used to treat large varicose veins. Endoscopic vein surgery uses a small camera to see inside and remove veins.
- Lasers and intense pulsed light. These devices use heat energy to selectively damage or destroy abnormal veins. An advantage of these treatments is that no needles or sclerosing solutions are required, but there may be some minor discomfort. Side effects can include discoloration or staining and blister formation. Examples include Vasculight and PhotoDerm.
Not all patients need treatment for their varicose veins. Many people have no pain or other symptoms. For them, no treatment is necessary, unless they want the veins removed for cosmetic reasons.
Insurance Coverage for Varicose Vein Treatment
Many insurance companies do cover the cost of treating deeper varicose veins, but generally not superficial or spider veins. Check with your insurance company to determine which treatment option may be covered under your plan.