HOMOTAURINE

OTHER NAME(S):

3-APS, 3-Amino-1-Propanesulfonic Acid, 3-aminopropane-1-sulfonic Acid, 3-Aminopropanesulfonic Acid, 3-Aminopropylsulfonic Acid, Acide 3-Aminopropanesulfonique, Homotaurin, Homotaurina, Tramiprosate.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Homotaurine is an amino acid that is found in some seaweeds. However, commercial products that are sold as supplements are made in a laboratory.

One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease is the formation of plaques in the brain. It was discovered that homotaurine could interfere with these plaques when used in animals. Because of this there was hope that it could work as a prescription medicine to treat Alzheimer’s disease in people. However, studies in Alzheimer’s disease patients were disappointing, and the maker of the product decided to discontinue development of homotaurine as a prescription medicine. Instead, it is now being sold as a dietary supplement.

How does it work?

Homotaurine works in the brain, interfering with the formation of the plaques that contribute to Alzheimer’s disease. It also interferes with the formation of plaques in blood vessels in the brain, that are associated with a condition called cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Alzheimer’s disease. There is some scientific research showing that homotaurine might slow the formation of plaques in the brain of people with Alzheimer’s disease. But other research shows that homotaurine does not improve symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Homotaurine is being studied as a possible treatment for this condition that increases the risk of bleeding in the brain called “brain hemorrhage.” But there is no research yet to know if it works for this use.
  • Hair loss.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of homotaurine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Homotaurine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for most people. It can cause some minor side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and headache.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable scientific information available to know if homotaurine is safe to take during pregnancy or while breast-feeding. Until more is known, do not take homotaurine while pregnant or breast-feeding.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for HOMOTAURINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • Alzheimer’s disease: 50 mg to 150 mg taken twice daily.
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: 50 mg to 150 mg taken twice daily.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • McCaffrey P, Strobel G. Philadelphia: European trial of Alzhemed ends, marketing morphs to supplement. Alzheimer Research Forum. November 19, 2007. Available at: www.alzforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1691. (Accessed 26 May 2009).
  • Aisen PS, Gauthier S, Vellas B, et al. Alzhemed: a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007;4:473-8. View abstract.
  • Aisen PS, Saumier D, Briand R, et al. A Phase II study targeting amyloid-beta with 3APS in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2006;67:1757-63. View abstract.
  • Alzheimer's Association Statement: Vivimind supplement for "protecting memory function." Alzheimer's Association, Chicago, IL. September 2008. Available at: www.alzforum.org/new/Vivimind.pdf. (Accessed 26 May 2009).
  • Fariello RG, Golden GT, Pisa M. Homotaurine (3 aminopropanesulfonic acid; 3APS) protects from the convulsant and cytotoxic effect of systemically administered kainic acid. Neurology 1982;32:241-5. View abstract.
  • Gervais F, Paquette J, Morissette C, et al. Targeting soluble Abeta peptide with tramiprosate for the treatment of brain amyloidosis. Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:537-47. View abstract.
  • Giotti A, Luzzi S, Spagnesi S, Zilletti L. Homotaurine: a GABAB antagonist in guinea-pig ileum. Br J Pharmacol 1983;79:855-62. View abstract.
  • Greenberg SM, Rosand J, Schneider AT, et al. A phase 2 study of tramiprosate for cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006;20:269-74. View abstract.
  • Olive MF, Nannini MA, Ou CJ, et al. Effects of acute acamprosate and homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;437:55-61. View abstract.
  • Paakkari P, Paakkari I, Karppanen H, Paasonen MK. Mechanisms of the inhibitory cardiovascular effects of taurine and homotaurine. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;677:134-7. View abstract.
  • Ruiz de Valderas RM, Serrano MI, Serrano JS, Fernandez A. Effect of homotaurine in experimental analgesia tests. Gen Pharmacol 1991;22:717-21. View abstract.
  • Serrano I, Ruiz RM, Serrano JS, Fernandez A. GABAergic and cholinergic mediation in the antinociceptive action of homotaurine. Gen Pharmacol 1992;23:421-6. View abstract.
  • Serrano MI, Serrano JS, Asadi I, et al. Role of K+ channels in homotaurine-induced analgesia. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2001;15:167-73. View abstract.
  • Serrano MI, Serrano JS, Fernandez A, et al. GABA(B) receptors and opioid mechanisms involved in homotaurine-induced analgesia. Gen Pharmacol 1998;30:411-5. View abstract.
  • Wong GT. FDA deems US Alzhemed trial results inconclusive. Alzheimer Research Forum. August 28, 2007. Available at: www.alzforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1647. (Accessed 26 May 2009).
  • Wright TM. Tramiprosate. Drugs Today (Barc) 2006;42:291-8. View abstract.
  • McCaffrey P, Strobel G. Philadelphia: European trial of Alzhemed ends, marketing morphs to supplement. Alzheimer Research Forum. November 19, 2007. Available at: www.alzforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1691. (Accessed 26 May 2009).
  • Aisen PS, Gauthier S, Vellas B, et al. Alzhemed: a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007;4:473-8. View abstract.
  • Aisen PS, Saumier D, Briand R, et al. A Phase II study targeting amyloid-beta with 3APS in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2006;67:1757-63. View abstract.
  • Alzheimer's Association Statement: Vivimind supplement for "protecting memory function." Alzheimer's Association, Chicago, IL. September 2008. Available at: www.alzforum.org/new/Vivimind.pdf. (Accessed 26 May 2009).
  • Fariello RG, Golden GT, Pisa M. Homotaurine (3 aminopropanesulfonic acid; 3APS) protects from the convulsant and cytotoxic effect of systemically administered kainic acid. Neurology 1982;32:241-5. View abstract.
  • Gervais F, Paquette J, Morissette C, et al. Targeting soluble Abeta peptide with tramiprosate for the treatment of brain amyloidosis. Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:537-47. View abstract.
  • Giotti A, Luzzi S, Spagnesi S, Zilletti L. Homotaurine: a GABAB antagonist in guinea-pig ileum. Br J Pharmacol 1983;79:855-62. View abstract.
  • Greenberg SM, Rosand J, Schneider AT, et al. A phase 2 study of tramiprosate for cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006;20:269-74. View abstract.
  • Olive MF, Nannini MA, Ou CJ, et al. Effects of acute acamprosate and homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;437:55-61. View abstract.
  • Paakkari P, Paakkari I, Karppanen H, Paasonen MK. Mechanisms of the inhibitory cardiovascular effects of taurine and homotaurine. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;677:134-7. View abstract.
  • Ruiz de Valderas RM, Serrano MI, Serrano JS, Fernandez A. Effect of homotaurine in experimental analgesia tests. Gen Pharmacol 1991;22:717-21. View abstract.
  • Serrano I, Ruiz RM, Serrano JS, Fernandez A. GABAergic and cholinergic mediation in the antinociceptive action of homotaurine. Gen Pharmacol 1992;23:421-6. View abstract.
  • Serrano MI, Serrano JS, Asadi I, et al. Role of K+ channels in homotaurine-induced analgesia. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2001;15:167-73. View abstract.
  • Serrano MI, Serrano JS, Fernandez A, et al. GABA(B) receptors and opioid mechanisms involved in homotaurine-induced analgesia. Gen Pharmacol 1998;30:411-5. View abstract.
  • Wong GT. FDA deems US Alzhemed trial results inconclusive. Alzheimer Research Forum. August 28, 2007. Available at: www.alzforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1647. (Accessed 26 May 2009).
  • Wright TM. Tramiprosate. Drugs Today (Barc) 2006;42:291-8. View abstract.

More Resources for HOMOTAURINE

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