Acide Glycyrrhizique, Acide Glycyrrhizinique, Alcacuz, Alcazuz, Bois Doux, Bois Sucré, Can Cao, Chinese Licorice, Deglycyrrhized Licorice, East European Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glabra, Glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza echinate, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra violacea, Glycyrrhiza glabra glandulifera, Glycyrrhiza glandulifera, Glycyrrhiza Radix, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhizae, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Glycyrrhizinic Acid, Isoflavone, Jethi-Madh, Kanzo, Lakritze, Licorice Root, Liquiritiae Radix, Liquirizia, Mulathi, Mulethi, Orozuz, Phytoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogène, Racine de Réglisse, Racine Douce, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Régalissse, Regaliz, Reglisse, Réglisse, Réglisse Déglycyrrhisée, Réglisse Espagnole, Réglisse Russe, Regliz, Russian Licorice, Spanish Licorice, Subholz, Sussholz, Sweet Root, Turkish Licorice, Ural Licorice, Yashtimadhu, Yashti-Madhu, Yashti-Madhuka, Zhi Gan Cao.
Overview InformationLicorice is an herb that grows in parts of Europe and Asia. The root is used as medicine. Licorice root contains glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid can cause complications when eaten in large quantities. Many "licorice" products manufactured in the U.S. actually don't contain any licorice. Instead, they contain anise oil, which has the characteristic smell and taste of "black licorice."
Licorice is used for eczema, swelling (inflammation) of the liver (hepatitis), mouth sores, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
Licorice is also used to flavor foods, beverages, and tobacco products.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Some experts warn that licorice may interfere with the body's response against COVID-19. There is no strong data to support this warning. But there is also no good data to support using licorice for COVID-19. Follow healthy lifestyle choices and proven prevention methods instead.
How does it work?The chemicals contained in licorice are thought to decrease swelling, thin mucus secretions, decrease cough, and increase the chemicals in our body that heal ulcers.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). There is some evidence that applying licorice to the skin can improve symptoms of eczema. Applying a gel containing licorice three times daily for 2 weeks seems to reduce redness, swelling, and itching.
- Side effects in people after breathing tube removal. Sucking on a licorice lozenge or gargling with a licorice fluid shortly before placement of a breathing tube seems to help prevent cough and sore throat from occurring when the tube is removed.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Canker sores. Some early research shows that applying a patch containing licorice to the inside of the mouth for 16 hours daily for 8 days reduces the size of canker sores but does not speed up healing time. Other early research shows that applying licorice patches and gargling with warm water containing licorice reduces pain in patients with canker sores.
- Dental plaque. Early research suggests that using a toothpaste containing licorice twice dally does not reduce plaque, gingivitis, or bleeding when compared to toothpaste without licorice. Using mouthwash containing glycyrrhizin also does not seem to reduce plaque.
- Dry mouth. Early research suggests that taking a licorice mouthwash with every meal for 10 days in people on kidney dialysis with dry mouth might improve feelings of dry mouth but not the amount of saliva produced.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking certain combination products containing licorice root and many other herbal ingredients seems to improve symptoms of indigestion. It's unclear if licorice is beneficial when used alone.
- A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori) . Early research shows that taking licorice twice daily together with a standard medication for H. pylori infection cures the infection more than taking a standard medication treatment alone. Licorice may only be helpful for the infection in people with peptic ulcer disease. More research is needed.
- Hepatitis. There is some evidence that certain components in licorice might be effective in treating hepatitis B and hepatitis C when given intravenously (by IV). Early research shows that using a specific IV licorice product seems to reduce death by about 50%. However, the studies involved too few patients to draw firm conclusions.
- High cholesterol. Early research suggests that taking licorice root extract daily for 1 month reduces total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol.
- High potassium levels. Some research suggests that certain components in licorice decrease potassium levels in people with diabetes or kidney problems.
- Mouth sores (lichen planus). Early evidence suggests that administering a certain licorice component intravenously (by IV) improves symptoms of mouth sores in people with hepatitis C.
- Symptoms of menopause. Some early research shows that taking licorice root extract can reduce the number and intensity of hot flashes in menopausal women. Other early research shows that it does not.
- Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Early research suggests that taking 2 grams of licorice root extract daily for 2 months reduces test markers of liver injury in patients with liver disease not caused by drinking alcohol.
- Obesity. Early research shows that taking licorice doesn't reduce body weight in people who are overweight or obese.
- Parkinson disease. Early research shows that taking licorice by mouth may improve symptoms and tremor in people with Parkinson disease. But higher quality research is needed to confirm.
- Stomach ulcers. There is some evidence that specially prepared licorice will speed up the healing of stomach ulcers. Taking a specific licorice product containing certain antacids for 4-16 weeks might speed up ulcer healing. However, taking similar licorice products that do not contain additional antacids does not appear to improve stomach ulcer symptoms.
- Physical performance in elderly adults. Early research shows that giving licorice oil to older women that exercise does not improve their walking speed or other physical abilities.
- A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS).
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS).
- An autoimmune disease that causes widespread swelling (systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE).
- An inherited fever disorder (familial Mediterranean fever).
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Dark skin patches on the face (melasma).
- High levels of a hormone called prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia)..
- Muscle cramps.
- Prostate cancer.
- Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Licorice is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in amounts found in foods. Licorice is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in larger amounts for medicinal purposes for a short amount of time. However, it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large amounts for more than 4 weeks or in smaller amounts long-term. Consuming licorice daily for several weeks or longer can cause severe side effects including life-threatening high blood pressure, low potassium levels, weakness, paralysis, and occasionally brain damage in otherwise healthy people. In people who eat a lot of salt or have heart disease, kidney disease, or high blood pressure, as little as 5 grams per day can cause these problems.
Other side effects of licorice use may include tiredness, absence of a menstrual period in women, headache, water and sodium retention, and decreased sexual interest and function in men.
People who chew tobacco flavored with licorice, drink licorice tea, or ingest large amounts of candy or lozenges that contain licorice might develop high blood pressure and other serious side effects.
When applied to the skin: Licorice is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin for a short amount of time. It may cause a rash in some people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It is UNSAFE to take licorice by mouth if you are pregnant. High consumption of licorice during pregnancy, about 250 grams of licorice per week, seems to increase the risk of early delivery. It might cause a miscarriage or early delivery. There isn't enough reliable information available about the safety of taking licorice when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Heart disease: Licorice can cause the body to store water, and this can make congestive heart failure worse. Licorice can also increase the risk of irregular heartbeat. Don't consume licorice if you have heart disease.
Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Licorice might act like estrogen in the body. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use licorice.
High blood pressure: Licorice can raise blood pressure. Don't consume large amounts of it if you have high blood pressure.
A muscle condition caused by nerve problems (hypertonia): Licorice can cause the level of potassium to drop in the blood. This can make hypertonia worse. Avoid licorice if you have hypertonia.
Low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia): Licorice can lower potassium in the blood. If your potassium is already low, licorice might make it too low. Don't use licorice if you have this condition.
Kidney disease: Overuse of licorice could make kidney disease worse. Don't use it.
Sexual problems in men: Licorice can lower a man's interest in sex and also worsen erectile dysfunction (ED) by lowering levels of a hormone called testosterone.
Surgery: Licorice might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking licorice at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Do not take this combination
Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with LICORICE
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. The body breaks down warfarin (Coumadin) to get rid of it. Licorice might increase the breakdown and decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the risk of clotting. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be cautious with this combination
Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with LICORICE
Large amounts of licorice can decrease potassium levels in the body. Low potassium levels can increase the side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).
Estrogens interacts with LICORICE
Licorice seems to change hormone levels in the body. Taking licorice along with estrogen pills might decrease the effects of estrogen pills.
Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.
Ethacrynic Acid (Edecrin) interacts with LICORICE
Licorice can cause the body to get rid of potassium. Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) can also cause the body to get rid of potassium. Taking licorice and ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) together might cause potassium to become too low.
Furosemide (Lasix) interacts with LICORICE
Licorice can cause the body to get rid of potassium. Furosemide (Lasix) can also cause the body to get rid of potassium. Taking licorice and furosemide together might cause the potassium levels in your body to go too low.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) substrates) interacts with LICORICE
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Licorice might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking licorice along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking licorice talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications changed by the liver include ketamine (Ketalar), phenobarbital, orphenadrine (Norflex), secobarbital (Seconal), dexamethasone (Decadron), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates) interacts with LICORICE
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Licorice might change how the liver breaks down some medications. Taking licorice along with medications that are broken down by the liver might increase or decrease the effects of these medications. Before taking licorice, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), and warfarin (Coumadin).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with LICORICE
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Licorice might change how the liver breaks down some medications. Taking licorice along with medications that are broken down by the liver might increase or decrease the effects of some medications. Before taking licorice, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs) interacts with LICORICE
Large amounts of licorice seem to increase blood pressure. By increasing blood pressure licorice might decrease the effectiveness of medications for high blood pressure.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications for inflammation (Corticosteroids) interacts with LICORICE
Some medications for inflammation can decrease potassium in the body. Licorice might also decrease potassium in the body. Taking licorice along with some medications for inflammation might decrease potassium in the body too much.
Some medications for inflammation include dexamethasone (Decadron), hydrocortisone (Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and others.
Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with LICORICE
Large amounts of licorice can decrease potassium levels in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking licorice along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.
Some "water pills" that can deplete potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDIURIL, Microzide), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For eczema (atopic dermatitis): Gel products containing 1% or 2% licorice root extract have been applied three times daily for 2 weeks.
- For side effects in people after breathing tube removal: A lozenge containing 97 mg of licorice has been sucked for 30 minutes before anesthesia. Gargling with 30 mL of a fluid containing 0.5 grams of licorice for at least one minute beginning 5 minutes before placement of a breathing tube, has been used.
- Nussbaumer, U., Landolt, M., Rothlisberger, G., Akovbiantz, A., Keller, H., Weber, E., Blum, A. L., and Peter, P. [Postoperative stress hemorrhage: ineffective prevention with pepsin inhibitor and deglycyrrhizinized licorice extract. Prospective study]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 2-26-1977;107(8):276-279. View abstract.
- Peters, M. C., Tallman, J. A., Braun, T. M., and Jacobson, J. J. Clinical reduction of S. mutans in pre-school children using a novel liquorice root extract lollipop: a pilot study. Eur.Arch.Paediatr.Dent 2010;11(6):274-278. View abstract.
- Purnak, T., Ozaslan, E., Beyazit, Y., and Haznedaroglu, I. C. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with defective hemostasis successfully treated with ankaferd blood stopper. Phytother.Res. 2011;25(2):312-313. View abstract.
- Rees, W. D., Rhodes, J., Wright, J. E., Stamford, L. F., and Bennett, A. Effect of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice on gastric mucosal damage by aspirin. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 1979;14(5):605-607. View abstract.
- Reuter, J., Merfort, I., and Schempp, C. M. Botanicals in dermatology: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol 2010;11(4):247-267. View abstract.
- Rosenblat, M. and Aviram, M. Paraoxonases role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Biofactors 2009;35(1):98-104. View abstract.
- Roussak NJ. Fatal hypokalaemic alkalosis with tetany during liquorice and P.A.S. therapy. Brit Med J 1952;1:360-361. View abstract.
- Schleimer, R. P. Potential regulation of inflammation in the lung by local metabolism of hydrocortisone. Am J Respir.Cell Mol.Biol. 1991;4(2):166-173. View abstract.
- Sheth, V. M. and Pandya, A. G. Melasma: a comprehensive update: part II. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;65(4):699-714. View abstract.
- Tacconi, P., Paribello, A., Cannas, A., and Marrosu, M. G. Carpal tunnel syndrome triggered by excessive licorice consumption. J Peripher.Nerv.Syst. 2009;14(1):64-65. View abstract.
- Thom E and Wollan T. A controlled clinical study of kanjang mixture in the treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections. Phytotherapy Research 1997;11:207-210.
- van Gelderen, C. E., Bijlsma, J. A., van Dokkum, W., and Savelkoul, T. J. Glycyrrhizic acid: the assessment of a no effect level. Hum.Exp Toxicol. 2000;19(8):434-439. View abstract.
- van Rossum, T. G., Vulto, A. G., Hop, W. C., and Schalm, S. W. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous glycyrrhizin after single and multiple doses in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Clin Ther 1999;21(12):2080-2090. View abstract.
- Visavadiya, N. P. and Narasimhacharya, A. V. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rats. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50(11):1080-1086. View abstract.
- Werner, S., Brismar, K., and Olsson, S. Hyperprolactinaemia and liquorice. Lancet 2-10-1979;1(8111):319. View abstract.
- Hsu, Y. L., Wu, L. Y., Hou, M. F., Tsai, E. M., Lee, J. N., Liang, H. L., Jong, Y. J., Hung, C. H., and Kuo, P. L. Glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root, inhibits migration, invasion and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting focal adhesion kinase/Rho signaling pathway. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2011;55(2):318-327. View abstract.
- Isaia, G. C., Pellissetto, C., Ravazzoli, M., and Tamone, C. Acute adrenal crisis and hypercalcemia in a patient assuming high liquorice doses. Minerva Med 2008;99(1):91-94. View abstract.
- Ito, M., Nakashima, H., Baba, M., Pauwels, R., De Clercq, E., Shigeta, S., and Yamamoto, N. Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on the in vitro infectivity and cytopathic activity of the human immunodeficiency virus [HIV (HTLV- III/LAV)]. Antiviral Res 1987;7(3):127-137. View abstract.
- Ito, M., Sato, A., Hirabayashi, K., Tanabe, F., Shigeta, S., Baba, M., De Clercq, E., Nakashima, H., and Yamamoto, N. Mechanism of inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antiviral Res 12-11-1988;10(6):289-298. View abstract.
- Jin, C. Y., Wang, D. L., and Fang, Z. D. [Effect of integrative Chinese and Western medicine in treating chronic urticaria and its impact on interleukin-10 and interleukin-8 in peripheral blood]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2008;28(4):358-360. View abstract.
- Kroes, B. H., Beukelman, C. J., van den Berg, A. J., Wolbink, G. J., van Dijk, H., and Labadie, R. P. Inhibition of human complement by beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Immunology 1997;90(1):115-120. View abstract.
- Kumada T, et al. Effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (Tsumura TJ-68) on muscle cramps accompanying cirrhosis in a placebo-controlled double-blind parallel study. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics Medicine. 1999;15:499-523.
- Lee, C. H., Park, S. W., Kim, Y. S., Kang, S. S., Kim, J. A., Lee, S. H., and Lee, S. M. Protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30(10):1898-1904. View abstract.
- Lee, I. T., Lee, W. J., Tsai, C. M., Su, I. J., Yen, H. T., and Sheu, W. H. Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2012;32(2):85-92. View abstract.
- Lin, J. C. Mechanism of action of glycyrrhizic acid in inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus replication in vitro. Antiviral Res 2003;59(1):41-47. View abstract.
- Lozano, P., Flores, D., Martinez, S., Artigues, I., Rimbau, E. M., and Gomez, F. Upper limb ischemia induced by chronic licorice ingestion. J Cardiovasc.Surg (Torino) 2000;41(4):631-632. View abstract.
- Luo, Y. G., Liu, Y. Q., and Hu, J. [Clinical study on effect of recombinant roasted licorice decoction combined with low-dose glucocorticoids in treating idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2001;21(7):501-503. View abstract.
- Luper, S. A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease: part two. Altern Med Rev 1999;4(3):178-188. View abstract.
- Mattarello MJ, Karbowiak I, Ermolao A, and et al. Licorice reduces body fat mass in obese men and women. 83rd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, June 20-23 2001;abstract P1-573.
- Messier, C., Epifano, F., Genovese, S., and Grenier, D. Licorice and its potential beneficial effects in common oro-dental diseases. Oral Dis 2012;18(1):32-39. View abstract.
- Mitscher, L. A., Park, Y. H., Clark, D., and Beal, J. L. Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Antimicrobial isoflavanoids and related substances from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. typica. J Nat Prod 1980;43(2):259-269. View abstract.
- Mohire, N. C. and Yadav, A. V. Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste: as novel oral hygiene product. Indian J Dent Res 2010;21(3):380-384. View abstract.
- Nabeshima, S., Kashiwagi, K., Ajisaka, K., Masui, S., Takeoka, H., Ikematsu, H., and Kashiwagi, S. A randomized, controlled trial comparing traditional herbal medicine and neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of seasonal influenza. J Infect.Chemother. 2012;18(4):534-543. View abstract.
- Nishioka, K. and Seguchi, T. Contact allergy due to oil-soluble licorice extracts in cosmetic products. Contact Dermatitis 1999;40(1):56. View abstract.
- Ai, M., Yamaguchi, T., Odaka, T., Mitsuhashi, K., Shishido, T., Yan, J., Seza, A., and Saisho, H. Objective assessment of the antispasmodic effect of shakuyaku-kanzo-to (TJ-68), a Chinese herbal medicine, on the colonic wall by direct spraying during colonoscopy. World J Gastroenterol 2-7-2006;12(5):760-764. View abstract.
- Aoki, F., Nakagawa, K., Kitano, M., Ikematsu, H., Nakamura, K., Yokota, S., Tominaga, Y., Arai, N., and Mae, T. Clinical safety of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) and pharmacokinetics of glabridin in healthy humans. J Am Coll.Nutr 2007;26(3):209-218. View abstract.
- Armanini, D., Castello, R., Scaroni, C., Bonanni, G., Faccini, G., Pellati, D., Bertoldo, A., Fiore, C., and Moghetti, P. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with spironolactone plus licorice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol.Reprod Biol 2007;131(1):61-67. View abstract.
- Baba, M. and Shigeta, S. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against varicella-zoster virus in vitro. Antiviral Res 1987;7(2):99-107. View abstract.
- Badr, A. E., Omar, N., and Badria, F. A. A laboratory evaluation of the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Liquorice when used as root canal medicament. Int Endod.J 2011;44(1):51-58. View abstract.
- Bai, Y. S., Zhou, C. Y., and Wang, J. Q. [Clinical observation on auxiliary treatment of hormone dependence dermatitis by shufeng liangxue decoction]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2008;28(12):1121-1123. View abstract.
- Barrella, M., Lauria, G., Quatrale, R., and Paolino, E. Hypokaliemic rhabdomyolysis associated with liquorice ingestion: report of an atypical case. Ital.J Neurol.Sci 1997;18(4):217-220. View abstract.
- Brush, J., Mendenhall, E., Guggenheim, A., Chan, T., Connelly, E., Soumyanath, A., Buresh, R., Barrett, R., and Zwickey, H. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res 2006;20(8):687-695. View abstract.
- Burgess, J. A., van der Ven, P. F., Martin, M., Sherman, J., and Haley, J. Review of over-the-counter treatments for aphthous ulceration and results from use of a dissolving oral patch containing glycyrrhiza complex herbal extract. J Contemp.Dent Pract. 2008;9(3):88-98. View abstract.
- Chamberlain, J. J. and Abolnik, I. Z. Pulmonary edema following a licorice binge. West J Med 1997;167(3):184-185. View abstract.
- Chen, W. G. and Ba, Z. M. Prof. ZHANG Yi's experience in treating severe arrhythmia. J Tradit.Chin Med 2010;30(1):47-50. View abstract.
- Chien, C. F., Wu, Y. T., and Tsai, T. H. Biological analysis of herbal medicines used for the treatment of liver diseases. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2011;25(1-2):21-38. View abstract.
- Chin, Y. W., Jung, H. A., Liu, Y., Su, B. N., Castoro, J. A., Keller, W. J., Pereira, M. A., and Kinghorn, A. D. Anti-oxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). J Agric Food Chem 6-13-2007;55(12):4691-4697. View abstract.
- Cooper, H., Bhattacharya, B., Verma, V., McCulloch, A. J., Smellie, W. S., and Heald, A. H. Liquorice and soy sauce, a life-saving concoction in a patient with Addison's disease. Ann Clin Biochem 2007;44(Pt 4):397-399. View abstract.
- Cotterill, J. A. and Cunliffe, W. J. Self-medication with liquorice in a patient with Addison's disease. Lancet 2-10-1973;1(7798):294-295. View abstract.
- Dobbins, K. R. and Saul, R. F. Transient visual loss after licorice ingestion. J Neuroophthalmol. 2000;20(1):38-41. View abstract.
- Doeker, B. M. and Andler, W. Liquorice, growth retardation and Addison's disease. Horm.Res 1999;52(5):253-255. View abstract.
- Eisenburg, J. [Treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Part 2: Effect of glycyrrhizic acid on the course of illness]. Fortschr.Med 7-30-1992;110(21):395-398. View abstract.
- Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate. Int J Toxicol 2007;26 Suppl 2:79-112. View abstract.
- Fiore, C., Eisenhut, M., Krausse, R., Ragazzi, E., Pellati, D., Armanini, D., and Bielenberg, J. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species. Phytother Res 2008;22(2):141-148. View abstract.
- Goto, F., Asama, Y., and Ogawa, K. Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko as an alternative treatment for chronic tonsillitis to avoid surgery. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16(4):216-218. View abstract.
- Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16(26):2935-2947. View abstract.
- Hasegawa, J., Suyama, Y., Kinugawa, T., Morisawa, T., and Kishimoto, Y. Echocardiographic findings of the heart resembling dilated cardiomyopathy during hypokalemic myopathy due to licorice-induced pseudoaldosteronism. Cardiovasc.Drugs Ther 1998;12(6):599-600. View abstract.
- Hattori, M., Sakamoto, T., Kobashi, K., and Namba, T. Metabolism of glycyrrhizin by human intestinal flora. Planta Med 1983;48(5):38-42. View abstract.
- Hattori, T., Ikematsu, S., Koito, A., Matsushita, S., Maeda, Y., Hada, M., Fujimaki, M., and Takatsuki, K. Preliminary evidence for inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on HIV replication in patients with AIDS. Antiviral Res 1989;11(5-6):255-261. View abstract.
- Hossain, M. S., Takimoto, H., Hamano, S., Yoshida, H., Ninomiya, T., Minamishima, Y., Kimura, G., and Nomoto, K. Protective effects of hochu-ekki-to, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine against murine cytomegalovirus infection. Immunopharmacology 1999;41(3):169-181. View abstract.
- Xu, L., Jiang, J., and Du, F. Z. [Application of dannang recipe no. 2 in the perioperative stage of laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2008;28(12):1090-1092. View abstract.
- Yamaguchi, H., Kidachi, Y., Kamiie, K., Noshita, T., Umetsu, H., and Ryoyama, K. Glycyrrhetinic acid induces anoikis-like death and cytoskeletal disruption in the central nervous system tumorigenic cells. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2010;33(2):321-324. View abstract.
- Yamashiki, M., Nishimura, A., Suzuki, H., Sakaguchi, S., and Kosaka, Y. Effects of the Japanese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) on in vitro interleukin-10 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997;25(6):1390-1397. View abstract.
- Zheng, A. and Moritani, T. Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2008;54(3):244-249. View abstract.
- Zhou, Y., Huang, Z., and Huang, T. [Clinical study of shengxue mixture in treating aplastic anemia]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2000;20(3):173-175. View abstract.
- Abe Y, Ueda T, Kato T, Kohli Y. [Effectiveness of interferon, glycyrrhizin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C]. Nippon Rinsho 1994;52:1817-22. View abstract.
- Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Tandon A, et al. A preliminary open trial on interferon stimulator (SNMC) derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of subacute hepatic failure. Indian J Med Res 1993;98:69-74. View abstract.
- Agarwal, A., Gupta, D., Yadav, G., Goyal, P., Singh, P. K., and Singh, U. An evaluation of the efficacy of licorice gargle for attenuating postoperative sore throat: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Anesth Analg 2009;109(1):77-81. View abstract.
- Amaryan G, Astvatsatryan V, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Phytomedicine 2003;10:271-85. View abstract.
- Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2002;9:145-50. View abstract.
- American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition. Ed. Gardner Z, McGuffin M. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.
- Anonymous. Treatment of duodenal ulcer with glycyrrhizinic-acid-reduced liquorice. A multicentre trial. Br Med J 1971;3(773):501-503. View abstract.
- Arase, Y., Ikeda, K., Murashima, N., Chayama, K., Tsubota, A., Koida, I., Suzuki, Y., Saitoh, S., Kobayashi, M., and Kumada, H. The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Cancer 1997;79(8):1494-1500. View abstract.
- Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott J, Fahey P, Cheema BS, Bensoussan A. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):1330-1340. View abstract.
- Armanini D, Bonanni G, Mattarello MJ, et al. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2003;111:341-3. View abstract.
- Armanini D, Bonanni G, Palermo M. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1158. View abstract.
- Armanini D, De Palo CB, Mattarello MJ, et al. Effect of licorice on reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects. J Endocrinol Invest 2003;26:646-50. View abstract.
- Armanini D, Lewicka S, Pratesi C, et al. Further studies on the mechanism of the mineralocorticoid action of licorice in humans. J Endocrinol Invest 1996;19:624-9. View abstract.
- Armanini, D., Mattarello, M. J., Fiore, C., Bonanni, G., Scaroni, C., Sartorato, P., and Palermo, M. Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women. Steroids 2004;69(11-12):763-766. View abstract.
- Armanini, D., Nacamulli, D., Francini-Pesenti, F., Battagin, G., Ragazzi, E., and Fiore, C. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application. Steroids 2005;70(8):538-542. View abstract.
- Balakrishnan, V., Pillai, M. V., Raveendran, P. M., and Nair, C. S. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26(9):811-814. View abstract.
- Bannister, B., Ginsburg, R., and Shneerson, J. Cardiac arrest due to liquoriceinduced hypokalaemia. Br Med J 9-17-1977;2(6089):738-739. View abstract.
- Bardhan, K. D., Cumberland, D. C., Dixon, R. A., and Holdsworth, C. D. Clinical trial of deglycyrrhizinised liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1978;19(9):779-782. View abstract.
- Baykul, T., Alanoglu, E. G., and Kocer, G. Use of Ankaferd Blood Stopper as a hemostatic agent: a clinical experience. J Contemp Dent Pract 2010;11(1):E088-E094. View abstract.
- Bell ZW, Canale RE, Bloomer RJ. A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers or health and adiposity. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:29. View abstract.
- Beretta-Piccoli, C., Salvade, G., Crivelli, P. L., and Weidmann, P. Body-sodium and blood volume in a patient with licorice-induced hypertension. J Hypertens 1985;3(1):19-23. View abstract.
- Berlango Jimenez A., Jimenez Murillo L., Montero Perez F. J., Munoz Avila J. A., Torres Murillo J., and Calderon de la Barca Gazquez J. M. [Acute rhabdomyolysis and tetraparesis secondary to hypokalemia due to ingested licorice]. An Med Interna 1995;12(1):33-35. View abstract.
- Bernardi, M., D'Intino, P. E., Trevisani, F., Cantelli-Forti, G., Raggi, M. A., Turchetto, E., and Gasbarrini, G. Effects of prolonged ingestion of graded doses of licorice by healthy volunteers. Life Sci 1994;55(11):863-872. View abstract.
- Bisogni V, Rossi GP, Calò LA. Apparent mineralcorticoid excess syndrome, an often forgotten or unrecognized cause of hypokalemia and hypertension: case report and appraisal of the pathophysiology. Blood Press. 2014 Jun;23(3):189-92. View abstract.
- Bocker, D. and Breithardt, G. [Induction of arrhythmia by licorice abuse]. Z Kardiol 1991;80(6):389-391. View abstract.
- Brasseur, A. and Ducobu, J. [Severe hypokalemia after holidays return]. Rev Med Brux 2008;29(5):490-493. View abstract.
- Brayley J, Jones J. Life-threatening hypokalemia associated with excessive licorice ingestion (letter). Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:617-8. View abstract.
- Caradonna, P., Gentiloni, N., Servidei, S., Perrone, G. A., Greco, A. V., and Russo, M. A. Acute myopathy associated with chronic licorice ingestion: reversible loss of myoadenylate deaminase activity. Ultrastruct Pathol 1992;16(5):529-535. View abstract.
- Cassano, N., Mantegazza, R., Battaglini, S., Apruzzi, D., Loconsole, F., and Vena, G. A. Adjuvant role of a new emollient cream in patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis: a pilot randomized open-label study. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010;145(6):789-792. View abstract.
- Cataldo, F., Di Stefano, P., Violante, M., Traverso, G., and Mule, M. [Pseudohyperaldosteronism secondary to licorice poisoning associated with hemorrhagic gastritis]. Pediatr Med Chir 1997;19(3):219-221. View abstract.
- Caubet-Kamar, N., Tubery, M., Garrouste, C., Lauque, D., and Kamar, N. Harmful effect of saline infusion in a patient with glycyrrhizic acid poisoning. CJEM 2010;12(3):224-225. View abstract.
- Celik, M. M., Karakus, A., Zeren, C., Demir, M., Bayarogullari, H., Duru, M., and Al, M. Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia. Hum Exp Toxicol 2012;31(12):1295-1298. View abstract.
- Chatterjee, N., Domoto-Reilly, K., Fecci, P. E., Schwamm, L. H., and Singhal, A. B. Licorice-associated reversible cerebral vasoconstriction with PRES. Neurology 2010;75(21):1939-1941. View abstract.
- Chen MF, Shimada F, Kato H, Yano S, Kanaoka M. Effect of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone following low dosage of prednisolone hemisuccinate. Endocrinol Jpn 1990;37:331-41. View abstract.
- Chen, M. F., Shimada, F., Kato, H., Yano, S., and Kanaoka, M. Effect of oral administration of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone. Endocrinol Jpn 1991;38(2):167-174. View abstract.
- Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, et al. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet 2003;361:2045-6.. View abstract.
- Corse, F. M., Galgani, S., Gasparini, C., Giacanelli, M., and Piazza, G. Acute hypokalemic myopathy due to chronic licorice ingestion: report of a case. Ital J Neurol Sci 1983;4(4):493-497. View abstract.
- Costa, A., Moises, T. A., Cordero, T., Alves, C. R., and Marmirori, J. Association of emblica, licorice and belides as an alternative to hydroquinone in the clinical treatment of melasma. An Bras Dermatol 2010;85(5):613-620. View abstract.
- Crean, A. M., Abdel-Rahman, S. E., and Greenwood, J. P. A sweet tooth as the root cause of cardiac arrest. Can J Cardiol 2009;25(10):e357-e358. View abstract.
- Cumming, A. M., Boddy, K., Brown, J. J., Fraser, R., Lever, A. F., Padfield, P. L., and Robertson, J. I. Severe hypokalaemia with paralysis induced by small doses of liquorice. Postgrad Med J 1980;56(657):526-529. View abstract.
- Da Nagao, Y., Sata, M., Suzuki, H., Tanikawa, K., Itoh, K., and Kameyama, T. Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection. J Gastroenterol 1996;31(5):691-695. View abstract.
- Dai DW, Singh I, Hershman JM. Lozenge-induced hypermineralcorticoid state--a unique case of licorice lozenges resulting in hypertension and hypokalemia. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2016;18(2):159-60. View abstract.
- Das SK, Das V, Gulati AK, and et al. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers. J Assoc Physicians India 1989;37(10):647. View abstract.
- Davis EA, Morris DJ. Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991;78(1-2):1-6. View abstract.
- de Klerk GJ, Nieuwenhuis G, Beutler JJ. Hypokalaemia and hypertension associated with use of liquorice flavoured chewing gum. BMJ 1997;314:731-2. View abstract.
- Dehours E, Vallé B, Rougé-Bugat ME, Florent B, Bounes V, Franchitto N. Suspected hypokalaemia following liquorice ingestion on board ship. J Telemed Telecare. 2013 Jun;19(4):227-8. View abstract.
- Dellow EL, Unwin RJ, Honour JW. Pontefract cakes can be bad for you: refractory hypertension and liquorice excess. Nephol Dial Transplant 1999;14:218-20. View abstract.
- Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Elinav E, Chajek-Shaul T. Licorice consumption causing severe hypokalemic paralysis. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:767-8. View abstract.
- Engqvist, A., von Feilitzen, F., Pyk, E., and Reichard, H. Double-blind trial of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1973;14(9):711-715. View abstract.
- Eriksson JW, Carlberg B, Hillom V. Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia due to liquorice-induced hypokalemia. J Intern Med 1999;245:307-10. View abstract.
- Eyi, E. G., Engin-Ustun, Y., Kaba, M., and Mollamahmutoglu, L. Ankaferd blood stopper in episiotomy repair. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2013;40(1):141-143. View abstract.
- Farese RV Jr, Biglieri EG, Shackleton CH, et al. Licorice-induced hypermineralocorticoidism. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1223-7. View abstract.
- Foster CA, Church KS, Poddar M, Van Uum SH, Spaic T. Licorice-induced hypertension: a case of pseudohyperaldosteronism due to jelly bean ingestion. Postgrad Med 2017;129(3):329-31. View abstract.
- Francini-Pesenti F, Puato M, Piccoli A, Brocadello F. Liquorice-induced hypokalaemia and water retention in the absence of hypertension. Phytother Res 2008;22:563-5. View abstract.
- Fugh-Berman, A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet 2000;355(9198):134-138. View abstract.
- Fuhrman, B., Volkova, N., Kaplan, M., Presser, D., Attias, J., Hayek, T., and Aviram, M. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased systolic blood pressure. Nutrition 2002;18(3):268-273. View abstract.
- Fung AY, Look PC, Chong LY, et al. A controlled trial of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in Chinese patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 1999;38:387-92 . View abstract.
- Gallacher SD, Tsokolas G, Dimitropoulos I. Liquorice-induced apparent mineralocorticoid excess presenting in the emergency department. Clin Med (Lond) 2017;17(1):43-5. View abstract.
- Gibertoni, M., Bonito, V., Colombo, A., Falasca, A., and Nichelli, P. [Licorice-induced myopathy. Report of a new case]. Riv Patol Nerv Ment 1983;104(4):179-183. View abstract.
- Goultschin, J., Palmon, S., Shapira, L., Brayer, L., and Gedalia, I. Effect of glycyrrhizin-containing toothpaste on dental plaque reduction and gingival health in humans. A pilot study. J Clin Periodontol 1991;18(3):210-212. View abstract.
- Gupta D, Agrawal S, Sharma JP. Effect of preoperative licorice lozenges on incidence of postextubation cough and sore throat in smokers undergoing general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2013 Jun;22(2):173-8. View abstract.
- Ha Y, Wang T, Li J, et al. Herb-Drug Interaction Potential of Licorice Extract and Paclitaxel: A Pharmacokinetic Study in Rats. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2020;45(2):257-264. View abstract.
- Hajiaghamohammadi AA, Zargar A, Oveisi S, Samimi R, Reisian S. To evaluate of the effect of adding licorice to the standard treatment regimen of Helicobacter pylori. Braz J Infect Dis 2016;20(6):534-8. View abstract.
- Hajiaghamohammadi, A. A., Ziaee, A., and Samimi, R. The efficacy of licorice root extract in decreasing transaminase activities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2012;26(9):1381-1384. View abstract.
- Hataya Y, Oba A, Yamashita T, Komatsu Y. Hyponatremia in an elderly patient due to isolated hypoaldosteronism occurring after licorice withdrawal. Intern Med 2017;56(2):175-9. View abstract.
- Hawrelak, J. A. and Myers, S. P. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(10):1065-1071. View abstract.
- Heidemann HT, Kreuzfelder E. Hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria due to licorice ingestion and diuretic treatment. Klin Wochenschr 1983;61:303-5. View abstract.
- Hinoshita F, Ogura Y, Suzuki Y, et al. Effect of orally administered shao-yao-gan-cao-tang (Shakuyaku-kanzo-to) on muscle cramps in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med 2003;31:445-53. . View abstract.
- Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.
- Hukkanen J, Ukkola O, Savolainen MJ. Effects of low-dose liquorice alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide on the plasma potassium in healthy volunteers. Blood Press 2009;18:192-5. View abstract.
- Hussain RM. The sweet cake that reaches parts other cakes can't! Postgrad Med J 2003;79:115-6.. View abstract.
- Hyodo T, Taira T, Kumakura M, et al. The immediate effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, for muscular cramps during maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 2002;90:240. View abstract.
- Imtiaz, K. E. Sweet root, bitter pill: liquorice-induced hyperaldosteronism. QJM 2011;104(12):1093-1095. View abstract.
- Ito A, Hayashi N, Katayama K, and et al. Effect of glycyrrhizin on viral replication and quasispecies in patients with type C chronic hepatitis. Int Hepatol Comm 1997;233-238.
- Janse A, van Iersel M, Hoefnagels WH, Olde Rikker MG. The old lady who liked liquorice: hypertension due to chronic intoxication in a memory-impaired patient. Neth J Med 2005;63:149-50. View abstract.
- Johns, C. Glycyrrhizic acid toxicity caused by consumption of licorice candy cigars. CJEM 2009;11(1):94-96. View abstract.
- Kase Y, Saitoh K, Ishige A, et al. Mechanisms by which Hange-shashin-to reduces prostaglandin E2 levels. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21:1277-81. View abstract.
- Kent UM, Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Hollenberg PF. The licorice root derived isoflavan glabridin inhibits the activities of human cytochrome P450S 3A4, 2B6, and 2C9. Drug Metab Dispos 2002;30:709-15.. View abstract.
- Kinoshita T, Maruyama K, Yamamoto N, Saito I. The effects of dietary licorice flavonoid oil supplementation on body balance control in healthy middle-aged and older Japanese women undergoing a physical exercise intervention: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020. View abstract.
- Kinoshita, H., Okabayashi, M., Kaneko, M., Yasuda, M., Abe, K., Machida, A., Ohkubo, T., Kamata, T., and Yakushiji, F. Shakuyaku-kanzo-to induces pseudoaldosteronism characterized by hypokalemia, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation, and increased urinary cortisol levels. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15(4):439-443. View abstract.
- Kondo K1, Shiba M, Nakamura R, Morota T, Shoyama Y. Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30(7):1271-7. View abstract.
- Kormann R, Languille E, Amiot HM, Hertig A. Dying for a cup of tea. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Oct 19;2012. View abstract.
- Korri, H., Awada, A., Baajour, W., Beaini, M., and Nasreddine, W. [Rapidly progressing quadriparesis secondary to licorice (souss) intoxication]. J Med Liban 2012;60(2):117-119. View abstract.
- Koster, M. and David, G. K. Reversible severe hypertension due to licorice ingestion. N Engl J Med 1968;278(25):1381-1383. View abstract.
- Kraus SD, Kaminskis A. The anti-estrogenic action of beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Exp Med Surg 1969;27:411-20. View abstract.
- Kumada T, et al. Effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (Tsumura TJ-68) on muscle cramps accompanying cirrhosis in a placebo-controlled double-blind parallel study. J Clin Ther Med 1999;15:499-523.
- Kuriyama A, Maeda H. Topical application of licorice for prevention of postoperative sore throat in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth 2019;54:25-32. View abstract.
- Lapi F, Gallo E, Bernasconi S, et al. Myopathies associated with red yeast rice and liquorice: spontaneous reports from the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008;66:572-4. View abstract.
- Lee YS, Lorenzo BJ, Koufis T, et al. Grapefruit juice and its flavonoids inhibit 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;59:62-71. View abstract.
- Lee, C. K., Park, K. K., Lim, S. S., Park, J. H., and Chung, W. Y. Effects of the licorice extract against tumor growth and cisplatin-induced toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30(11):2191-2195. View abstract.
- Li G, Simmler C, Chen L, et al. Cytochrome P450 inhibition by three licorice species and fourteen licorice constituents. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2017;109:182-190. View abstract.
- Li J, Fan X, Wang Q. Hypertensive crisis with 2 target organ impairment induced by glycyrrhizin: a case report. Medicine (Baltimore) 2018;97(11):e0073. View abstract.
- Liang, R. N., Liu, J., and Lu, J. [Treatment of refractory polycystic ovary syndrome by bushen huoxue method combined with ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2008;28(4):314-317. View abstract.
- Lin SH, Yang SS, Chau T, Halperin ML. An unusual cause of hypokalemic paralysis: chronic licorice ingestion. Am J Med Sci 2003;325:153-6. View abstract.
- Lorenzin, F., Degen, C., Milani, A., Siciliano, M., and Rossi, L. [Pseudo-hyperaldosteronism caused by licorice. Pathogenetic considerations and presentation of a clinical case]. Clin Ter 1990;132(1):55-58. View abstract.
- Luchon, L., Meyrier, A., and Paillard, F. [Hypokalemia without arterial hypertension by licorice poisoning]. Nephrologie 1993;14(4):177-181. View abstract.
- MacKenzie, M. A., Hoefnagels, W. H., Jansen, R. W., Benraad, T. J., and Kloppenborg, P. W. The influence of glycyrrhetinic acid on plasma cortisol and cortisone in healthy young volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70(6):1637-1643. View abstract.
- Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52. View abstract.
- Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39(7):511-7. View abstract.
- Man SC, Li XB, Wang HH, et al. Peony-glycyrrhiza decoction for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia in women with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016;36(6):572-9. View abstract.
- Martin, M. D., Sherman, J., van der Ven, V., and Burgess, J. A controlled trial of a dissolving oral patch concerning glycyrrhiza (licorice) herbal extract for the treatment of aphthous ulcers. Gen Dent 2008;56(2):206-210. View abstract.
- Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87. View abstract.
- Menati L, Khaleghinezhad K, Tadayon M, Siahpoosh A. Evaluation of contextual and demographic factors on licorice effects on reducing hot flashes in postmenopause women. Health Care Women Int. 2014 Jan;35(1):87-99. View abstract.
- Moghadamnia, A. A., Motallebnejad, M., and Khanian, M. The efficacy of the bioadhesive patches containing licorice extract in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Phytother Res 2009;23(2):246-250. View abstract.
- Morris DJ, Davis E, Latif SA. Licorice, tobacco chewing, and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1990;322:849-50.
- Mu Y, Zhang J, Zhang S, et al. Traditional Chinese medicines Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) activate pregnane X receptor and increase warfarin clearance in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;316:1369-77. View abstract.
- Mumoli, N. and Cei, M. Licorice-induced hypokalemia. Int J Cardiol 2008;124(3):e42-e44. View abstract.
- Murakami, T. and Uchikawa, T. Effect of glycyrrhizine on hyperkalemia due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in diabetes mellitus. Life Sci 1993;53(5):PL63-8. View abstract.
- Nahidi F, Zare E, Mojab F, Alavi-Majd H. Effects of licorice on relief and recurrence of menopausal hot flashes. Iran J Pharm Res 2012;11(2):541-8. View abstract.
- O'Connell K, Kinsella J, McMahon C, Holian J, O'Riordan S. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) associated with liquorice consumption. Ir J Med Sci 2016;185(4):945-7. View abstract.
- Panduranga P, Al-Rawahi N. Licorice-induced severe hypokalemia with recurrent torsade de pointes. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013 Nov;18(6):593-6. View abstract.
- Petramfar P, Hajari F, Yousefi G, Azadi S, Hamedi A. Efficacy of oral administration of licorice as an adjunct therapy on improving the symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease, A randomized double blinded clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2020;247:112226. View abstract.
- Pfeifer BL, Pirani JF, Hamann SR, Klippel KF. PC-SPES, a dietary supplement for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. BJU Int 2000;85:481-5. View abstract.
- Prudden JF. The treatment of human cancer with agents prepared from bovine cartilage. J Biol Response Mod 1985;4:551-84. View abstract.
- Quinkler M, Stewart PM. Hypertension and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:2384-92. View abstract.
- Räikkönen K, Seckl JR, Heinonen K, Pyhälä R, Feldt K, Jones A, Pesonen AK, Phillips DI, Lahti J, Järvenpää AL, Eriksson JG, Matthews KA, Strandberg TE, Kajantie E. Maternal prenatal licorice consumption alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in children. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010 Nov;35(10):1587-93. View abstract.
- Robles BJ, Sandoval AR, Dardon JD, Blas CA. Lethal liquorice lollies (liquorice abuse causing pseudohyperaldosteronism). BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Sep 19;2013. View abstract.
- Ruetzler K, Fleck M, Nabecker S, Pinter K, Landskron G, Lassnigg A, You J, Sessler DI. A randomized, double-blind comparison of licorice versus sugar-water gargle for prevention of postoperative sore throat and postextubation coughing. Anesth Analg. 2013 Sep;117(3):614-21. View abstract.
- Ruiz-Granados, E. S., Shouls, G., Sainsbury, C., and Antonios, T. A salty cause of severe hypertension. BMJ Case Rep 2012;2012. View abstract.
- Russo S, Mastropasqua M, Mosetti MA, et al. Low doses of liquorice can induce hypertension encephalopathy. Am J Nephrol 2000;20:145-8. View abstract.
- Saeedi, M., Morteza-Semnani, K., and Ghoreishi, M. R. The treatment of atopic dermatitis with licorice gel. J Dermatolog Treat 2003;14(3):153-157. View abstract.
- Sato H, Goto W, Yamamura J, et al. Therapeutic basis of glycyrrhizin on chronic hepatitis B. Antiviral Res 1996;30:171-7. View abstract.
- Scali, M., Pratesi, C., Zennaro, M. C., Zampollo, V., and Armanini, D. Pseudohyperaldosteronism from liquorice-containing laxatives. J Endocrinol Invest 1990;13(10):847-848. View abstract.
- Serra, A., Uehlinger, D. E., Ferrari, P., Dick, B., Frey, B. M., Frey, F. J., and Vogt, B. Glycyrrhetinic Acid decreases plasma potassium concentrations in patients with anuria. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13(1):191-196. View abstract.
- Sheehan M, Rustin MHA, Atherton DJ, et al. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal therapy in adult atopic dermatitis. Lancet 1992;340:13-17. View abstract.
- Sheehan MP, Atherton DJ. A controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicinal plants in widespread non-exudative atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 1992;126:179-84. View abstract.
- Shintani, S., Murase, H., Tsukagoshi, H., and Shiigai, T. Glycyrrhizin (licorice)-induced hypokalemic myopathy. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Eur Neurol 1992;32(1):44-51. View abstract.
- Sigurjonsdottir HA, Franzson L, Manhem K, et al. Liquorice-induced rise in blood pressure: a linear dose-response relationship. J Hum Hypertens 2001;15:549-52. View abstract.
- Sigurjonsdottir HA, Ragnarsson J, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G. Is blood pressure commonly raised by moderate consumption of liquorice? J Hum Hypertens 1995;9:345-8. View abstract.
- Sigurjonsdottir, H. A., Manhem, K., Axelson, M., and Wallerstedt, S. Subjects with essential hypertension are more sensitive to the inhibition of 11 beta-HSD by liquorice. J Hum Hypertens 2003;17(2):125-131. View abstract.
- Sontia B, Mooney J, Gaudet L, Touyz RM. Pseudohyperaldosteronism, liquorice, and hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2008;10:153-7. View abstract.
- Steinberg, D., Sgan-Cohen, H. D., Stabholz, A., Pizanty, S., Segal, R., and Sela, M. N. The anticariogenic activity of glycyrrhizin: preliminary clinical trials. Isr J Dent Sci 1989;2(3):153-157. View abstract.
- Stormer FC, Reistad R, Alexander J. Glycyrrhizic acid in liquorice - evaluation of health hazard. Food Chem Toxicol 1993;31:303-12. View abstract.
- Strandberg TE, Andersson S, Jarvenpaa AL, et al. Preterm birth and licorice consumption during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:803-5.. View abstract.
- Strandberg TE, Jarvenpaa AL, Vanhanen H, McKeigue PM. Birth outcome in relation to licorice consumption during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:1085-8. View abstract.
- Suzuki H, Ohta Y, Takino T, and et al. Effects of glycyrrhizin on biochemical tests in patients with chronic hepatitis -- double blind trial. Asian Medical Journal 1984;26(7):423-438.
- Takahara T, Watanabe A, Shiraki K. Effects of glycyrrhizin on hepatitis B surface antigen: a biochemical and morphological study. J Hepatol 1994;21:601-9. View abstract.
- Tamir S, Eizenberg M, Somjen D, et al. Estrogenic and antiproliferative properties of glabridin from licorice in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2000;60:5704-9.. View abstract.
- Tancevski, I., Eller, P., Spiegel, M., Kirchmair, R., and Patsch, J. R. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Malicious licorice. Circulation 2008;117(13):e299. View abstract.
- Teelucksingh S, Mackie AD, Burt D, McIntyre MA, Brett L, Edwards CR. Potentiation of hydrocortisone activity in skin by glycyrrhetinic acid. Lancet 1990;335(8697):1060-3. View abstract.
- Tewari SN, Wilson AK. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in duodenal ulcer. Practitioner 1973;210:820-3. View abstract.
- Tu, J. H., He, Y. J., Chen, Y., Fan, L., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Huang, Y. F., Guo, D., Hu, D. L., Wang, D., and Hong-Hao Zhou. Effect of glycyrrhizin on the activity of CYP3A enzyme in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66(8):805-810. View abstract.
- Turpie AG, Runcie J, Thomson TJ. Clinical trial of deglydyrrhizinized liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1969;10:299-302. View abstract.
- van Beers, E. J., Stam, J., and van den Bergh, W. M. Licorice consumption as a cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report. Crit Care 2011;15(1):R64. View abstract.
- van den Bosch AE, van der Klooster JM, Zuidgeest DM, et al. Severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis due to ingestion of liquorice. Neth J Med 2005;63:146-8. View abstract.
- van der Zwan A. Hypertension encephalopathy after liquorice ingestion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;95(1):35-37. View abstract.
- van Marle J, Aarsen PN, Lind A, van Weeren-Kramer J. Deglycyrrhizinised liquorice (DGL) and the renewal of rat stomach epithelium. Eur J Pharmacol 1981;72:219-25.. View abstract.
- van Rossum, T. G., Vulto, A. G., Hop, W. C., and Schalm, S. W. Glycyrrhizin-induced reduction of ALT in European patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96(8):2432-2437. View abstract.
- van Rossum, T. G., Vulto, A. G., Hop, W. C., Brouwer, J. T., Niesters, H. G., and Schalm, S. W. Intravenous glycyrrhizin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/II trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;14(11):1093-1099. View abstract.
- van Uum SH. Liquorice and hypertension. Neth J Med 2005;63:119-20. View abstract.
- Westman EC, Guthrie GP. Licorice, tobacco chewing, and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1990;322:850.
- Wilson, J. A. A comparison of carbenoxolone sodium and deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of gastric ulcer in the ambulant patient. Br J Clin Pract 1972;26(12):563-566. View abstract.
- Wu, T. H., Chiu, T. Y., Tsai, J. S., Chen, C. Y., Chen, L. C., and Yang, L. L. Effectiveness of Taiwanese traditional herbal diet for pain management in terminal cancer patients. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2008;17(1):17-22. View abstract.
- Yamada, K., Kanba, S., Yagi, G., and Asai, M. Effectiveness of herbal medicine (shakuyaku-kanzo-to) for neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997;17(3):234-235. View abstract.
- Yamamoto, T., Hatanaka, M., Matsuda, J., Kadoya, H., Takahashi, A., Namba, T., Takeji, M., and Yamauchi, A. [Clinical characteristics of five elderly patients with severe hypokalemia induced by glycyrrhizin derivatives]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 2010;52(1):80-85. View abstract.
- Yasue H, Itoh T, Mizuno Y, Harada E. Severe hypokalemia, rhabdomyolysis, muscle paralysis, and respiratory impairment in a hypertensive patient taking herbal medicines containing licorice. Intern Med 2007;46:575-8. View abstract.
- Yoon JY, Cha JM, Hong SS, et al. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Glycyrrhiza glabra has a beneficial effect in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019;98(35):e16601. View abstract.
- Yorgun, H., Aksoy, H., Sendur, M. A., Ates, A. H., Kaya, E. B., Aytemir, K., and Oto, A. Brugada syndrome with aborted sudden cardiac death related to liquorice-induced hypokalemia. Med Princ Pract 2010;19(6):485-489. View abstract.
- Yoshida S, Takayama Y. Licorice-induced hypokalemia as a treatable cause of dropped head syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2003;105:286-7.. View abstract.
- Yoshino T, Yanagawa T, Watanabe K. Risk factors for pseudoaldosteronism with rhabdomyolysis caused by consumption of drugs containing licorice and differences between incidence of these conditions in Japan and other countries: case report and literature review. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Jun;20(6):516-20. View abstract.
- Yu IC, Tsai YF, Fang JT, Yeh MM, Fang JY, Liu CY. Effects of mouthwash interventions on xerostomia and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate among hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled study. Int J Nurs Stud 2016;63:9-17. View abstract.
- Yuan, H. N., Wang, C. Y., Sze, C. W., Tong, Y., Tan, Q. R., Feng, X. J., Liu, R. M., Zhang, J. Z., Zhang, Y. B., and Zhang, Z. J. A randomized, crossover comparison of herbal medicine and bromocriptine against risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008;28(3):264-370. View abstract.
- Zhang W, Leonard T, Bath-Hextall F, et al. Chinese herbal medicine for atopic eczema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;4:CD002291. View abstract.
- Zhang XH, Lowe D, Giles P, et al. Gender may affect the action of garlic oil on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels of normal subjects. J Nutr 2001;131:1471-8. View abstract.
- Zhang YD, Lorenzo B, Reidenberg MM. Inhibition of 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase obtained from guinea pig kidney by furosemide, naringenin and some other compounds. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994;49:81-5. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased LICORICE?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)