African Ginger, Amomum Zingiber, Ardraka, Black Ginger, Cochin Ginger, Gan Jiang, Gingembre, Gingembre Africain, Gingembre Cochin, Gingembre Indien, Gingembre Jamaïquain, Gingembre Noir, Ginger Essential Oil, Ginger Root, Huile Essentielle de Gingembre, Imber, Indian Ginger, Jamaica Ginger, Jengibre, Jiang, Kankyo, Kanshokyo, Nagara, Race Ginger, Racine de Gingembre, Rhizoma Zingiberi, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Shen Jiang, Sheng Jiang, Shoga, Shokyo, Shunthi, Srungavera, Sunth, Sunthi, Vishvabheshaja, Zingiber Officinale, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, Zinzeberis, Zinziber Officinale, Zinziber Officinalis.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationGinger is a plant with leafy stems and yellowish green flowers. The ginger spice comes from the roots of the plant. Ginger is native to warmer parts of Asia, such as China, Japan, and India, but now is grown in parts of South American and Africa. It is also now grown in the Middle East to use as medicine and with food.
Ginger is commonly used for various types of "stomach problems," including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), nausea, nausea caused by cancer treatment, nausea caused by HIV/AIDS treatment, nausea and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite.
Other uses include pain relief from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, menstrual pain, and other conditions. However, there is not strong evidence to support the use of ginger for these conditions.
Some people pour the fresh juice on their skin to treat burns. The oil made from ginger is sometimes applied to the skin to relieve pain. Ginger extract is also applied to the skin to prevent insect bites.
In foods and beverages, ginger is used as a flavoring agent.
In manufacturing, ginger is used as for fragrance in soaps and cosmetics.
One of the chemicals in ginger is also used as an ingredient in laxative, anti-gas, and antacid medications.
How does it work?Ginger contains chemicals that may reduce nausea and inflammation. Researchers believe the chemicals work primarily in the stomach and intestines, but they may also work in the brain and nervous system to control nausea.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Nausea and vomiting caused by drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS (antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting). Research suggests that taking ginger daily, 30 minutes before each dose of antiretroviral treatment for 14 days, reduces the risk of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving HIV treatment.
- Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Research shows that taking ginger powder 500-2000 mg during the first 3-4 days of a menstrual cycle modestly decreases pain in women and teens with painful menstrual periods. Ginger was given for approximately 3 days starting at the beginning of the menstrual period or at the beginning of pain. Some research shows that taking ginger seems to work about as well as some pain medications, like ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, or Novafen.
- Osteoarthritis. Most research shows that taking ginger by mouth can slightly reduce pain in some people with osteoarthritis. There is some evidence that taking ginger by mouth works as well as certain drugs such as ibuprofen and diclofenac for pain in hip and knee osteoarthritis. But conflicting results exist. Some early research also shows that ginger gel applied to the knee or ginger oil massaged into the knee can also relieve osteoarthritis pain.
- Morning sickness. Taking ginger by mouth seems to reduce nausea and vomiting in some pregnant women. But it might work slower or not as well as some drugs used for nausea. Also, taking any herb or medication during pregnancy is a big decision. Before taking ginger, be sure to discuss the possible risks with your healthcare provider.
- Dizziness (vertigo). Taking ginger seems to reduce the symptoms of dizziness, including nausea.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Muscle soreness caused by exercise. Research shows that taking ginger does not reduce muscle pain during exercise. Also, taking ginger doesn't seem to help treat or prevent muscle pain after exercise.
- Motion sickness. Most research suggests that taking ginger up to 4 hours before travel does not prevent motion sickness. Some people report feeling better, but actual measurements taken during studies suggest otherwise. But in one study, ginger appears to be more effective than the drug dimenhydrinate at reducing stomach upset associated with motion sickness.
Insufficient Evidence for
- A sudden and serious lung condition (acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS). Research suggests that administering 120 mg of ginger extract daily for up to 21 days increases the number of days without ventilator support, the amount of nutrients consumed, and reduces the time spent in intensive care units in people with sudden respiratory system a failure. However, ginger extract does not seem to affect death rates in people with this condition.
- Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment. Taking ginger along with anti-nausea medicine does not seem to prevent delayed nausea and vomiting in people treated with cancer drugs. This type of nausea and vomiting occurs a day or more after cancer therapy. The effect of ginger on sudden nausea and vomiting due to cancer drugs is conflicting. Some research shows it helps when used with anti-nausea medicine. Other research shows it doesn't. It's possible that ginger helps reduce nausea caused by only some cancer drugs. It's also possible that ginger helps reduce nausea caused by cancer drugs only when used with anti-nausea medicines that don't work very well on their own.
- A lung disease that makes it harder to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD). Research shows that taking two capsules of a specific combination product (AKL1, AKL International Ltd) containing ginger twice daily for 8 weeks does not improve respiratory symptoms in people with COPD.
- Diabetes. Taking ginger seems to lower blood sugar in some people with diabetes. Doses of at least 3 grams of ginger per day seem to be needed. Lower doses might not help. And ginger might need to be taken for at least 3 months before benefits are seen.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Research suggests that taking a single dose of 1.2 grams of ginger root powder one hour before eating speeds up how quickly food empties out of the some in people with dyspepsia.
- Hangover. Early research suggests that taking a combination of ginger, pith of Citrus tangerine, and brown sugar before drinking decreases symptoms of alcohol hangovers, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Research suggests that taking 1 gram of ginger three times daily for 45 days lowers triglyceride and cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
- High blood pressure. Drinking black tea with ginger might lower blood pressure by a small amount in people with diabetes and high blood pressure.
- Insect bite. Early research shows that applying Trikatu to the skin, which contains ginger, long pepper, and black pepper extracts, does not reduce mosquito bite size.
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Taking ginger alone doesn't seem to improve IBS symptoms. But taking ginger along with other herbal ingredients might help. Whether the benefit of these combination agents is due to ginger or the other ingredients is unclear.
- Joint pain. Research shows that taking capsules of a specific combination product (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) containing ginger for 8 weeks reduces joint pain by 37%. But this product does not seem to reduce joint stiffness or improve joint function.
- Abnormally heavy bleeding during menstrual periods (menorrhagia). Taking ginger might reduce menstrual bleeding in some young women with heavy menstrual bleeding.
- Migraine. Some reports suggest that taking a combination of ginger and feverfew might reduce the length and intensity of migraine pain. However, it is not clear if the effects are from ginger, feverfew or the combination.
- Obesity. Taking ginger alone doesn't seem to help obese people lose significant amounts of weight. Taking a ginger with other herbs does not result in consistent improvements in weight loss.
- Childbirth. Early evidence suggests that bathing in water containing ginger oil does not shorten the length of labor.
- Recovery after surgery. Inhaling and applying lavender and ginger oils to the skin before surgery does not seem to reduce distress in children after surgery. Taking ginger by mouth might help reduce pain and improve wound healing in children who've had their tonsils removed.
- Nausea and vomiting after surgery. The research for using ginger to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery is unclear. Some clinical research shows that taking ginger by mouth one hour before surgery reduces nausea and vomiting during the first 24 hours after surgery. But not all research agrees. Taking ginger by mouth doesn't seem to have added benefit when used with prescription medications for nausea and vomiting. Keep in mind that most patients are not supposed to eat or drink anything before surgery, so talk to your doctor first if you are interested in taking ginger before surgery. Ginger aromatherapy has also been studied. Placing ginger oil on patients' wrists or on a gauze pad before surgery seems to prevent nausea in some patients.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is some early evidence that ginger might be helpful for decreasing joint pain in people with RA.
- Trouble swallowing. Evidence suggests that spraying a product containing ginger and clematix root in the mouth improves severe problems swallowing in stroke victims. However, it is not beneficial in people with less severe problems swallowing. Also, taking a single ginger tablet doesn't help people with trouble swallowing due to aging.
- Liver damage caused by chemicals. Some drugs used to treat tuberculosis can cause liver damage. Taking ginger along with these drugs might help prevent liver damage in some people.
- An infection of the intestines that causes diarrhea (cholera).
- Loss of appetite.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Ginger is LIKELY SAFE when taken appropriately. Ginger can cause mild side effects including heartburn, diarrhea, and general stomach discomfort. Some women have reported extra menstrual bleeding while taking ginger.
When applied to the skin: Ginger is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin appropriately, short-term. It might cause irritation on the skin for some people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy: Ginger is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for medicinal uses during pregnancy. But using ginger during pregnancy is controversial. There is some concern that ginger might affect fetal sex hormones or increase the risk of having a baby that is stillborn. There is also a report of miscarriage during week 12 of pregnancy in a woman who used ginger for morning sickness. However, most studies in pregnant women suggest that ginger can be used safely for morning sickness without harm to the baby. The risk for major malformations in infants of women taking ginger does not appear to be higher than the usual rate of 1% to 3%. Also there doesn't appear to be an increased risk of early labor or low birth weight. There is some concern that ginger might increase the risk of bleeding, so some experts advise against using it close to your delivery date. As with any medication given during pregnancy, it's important to weigh the benefit against the risk. Before using ginger during pregnancy, talk it over with your healthcare provider.
Children: Ginger is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for up to 4 days by teenage girls around the start of their period.
Breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking ginger if you are breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders: Taking ginger might increase your risk of bleeding.
Diabetes: Ginger might increase your insulin levels and/or lower your blood sugar. As a result, your diabetes medications might need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.
Heart conditions: High doses of ginger might worsen some heart conditions.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with GINGER
Ginger might slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br /><br /> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), phenprocoumon (an anticlotting medicine available outside the US), and others.
Phenprocoumon interacts with GINGER
Phenprocoumon is used in Europe to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with phenprocoumon might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your phenprocoumon might need to be changed.
Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with GINGER
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be watchful with this combination
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with GINGER
Ginger might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking ginger along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.<br /><br /> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers) interacts with GINGER
Ginger might reduce blood pressure in a way that is similar to some medications for blood pressure and heart disease. Taking ginger along with these medications might cause your blood pressure to drop too low or an irregular heartbeat.<br /><br /> Some medications for high blood pressure and heart disease include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For nausea and vomiting caused by drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS (antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting): 1 gram of ginger daily in two divided doses 30 minutes before each antiretroviral treatment for 14 days has been used.
- For menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea): 250 mg of a specific ginger extract (Zintoma, Goldaru) four times daily for 3 days from the start of the menstrual period has been used. Also, 1500 mg of ginger powder daily in up to three divided doses, starting up to two days before menstruation and continuing for the first 3 days of the menstruation cycle, has been used.
- For morning sickness: 500 to 2500 mg of ginger daily in two to four divided doses for 3 days to 3 weeks has been used.
- For osteoarthritis: Many different ginger extract products have been used in studies. The dosing used differs depending on the product taken. One ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) 170 mg three times daily has been used. Another extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a ginger with an alpinia, 255 mg twice daily has also been used. Another ginger extract (Zintona EC) 250 mg four times daily has also been used. Also, a ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 35; EV ext-35) 340 mg daily in combination with 1000 mg of glucosamine daily for 4 weeks has been used.
- For dizziness (vertigo): 1 gram of ginger powder as a single dose one hour before causing dizziness has been used.
- For osteoarthritis: A specific gel containing ginger and plai (Plygersic gel, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research) 4 grams daily in four divided doses for 6 weeks has been used.
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- Aktan, F., Henness, S., Tran, V. H., Duke, C. C., Roufogalis, B. D., and Ammit, A. J. Gingerol metabolite and a synthetic analogue Capsarol inhibit macrophage NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression and enzyme activity. Planta Med 2006;72(8):727-734. View abstract.
- al Yahya, M. A., Rafatullah, S., Mossa, J. S., Ageel, A. M., Parmar, N. S., and Tariq, M. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats. Am.J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):51-56. View abstract.
- Alzoreky, N. S. and Nakahara, K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int J Food Microbiol. 2-15-2003;80(3):223-230. View abstract.
- Ansari, M. N., Bhandari, U., and Pillai, K. K. Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(11):892-897. View abstract.
- Asnani, V. and Verma, R. J. Antioxidative effect of rhizome of Zinziber officinale on paraben induced lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64(1):35-37. View abstract.
- Asnani, V. M. and Verma, R. J. Ameliorative effects of ginger extract on paraben-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2009;66(3):225-228. View abstract.
- Awang DV. Ginger. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal (Canada) 1992;125:309-311.
- Bhandari, U., Sharma, J. N., and Zafar, R. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;61(2):167-171. View abstract.
- Chung, S. W., Kim, M. K., Chung, J. H., Kim, D. H., Choi, J. S., Anton, S., Seo, A. Y., Park, K. Y., Yokozawa, T., Rhee, S. H., Yu, B. P., and Chung, H. Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation by a short-term feeding of zingerone in aged rats. J Med Food 2009;12(2):345-350. View abstract.
- Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother.Res 2010;24(5):649-656. View abstract.
- Dugasani, S., Pichika, M. R., Nadarajah, V. D., Balijepalli, M. K., Tandra, S., and Korlakunta, J. N. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of -gingerol, -gingerol, -gingerol and -shogaol. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):515-520. View abstract.
- El Abhar, H. S., Hammad, L. N., and Gawad, H. S. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118(3):367-372. View abstract.
- Ficker, C. E., Arnason, J. T., Vindas, P. S., Alvarez, L. P., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., De Souza, C., and Smith, M. L. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts. Mycoses 2003;46(1-2):29-37. View abstract.
- Ficker, C., Smith, M. L., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., Zhang, J., Durst, T., Assabgui, R., and Arnason, J. T. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from ginger. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(8):897-902. View abstract.
- Fouda, A. M. and Berika, M. Y. Evaluation of the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;104(3):262-271. View abstract.
- Futrell, J. M. and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52(5):288-290. View abstract.
- Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Dig.Dis.Sci 2005;50(10):1889-1897. View abstract.
- Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., Afridi, M. B., and Houghton, P. J. Cardiovascular effects of ginger aqueous extract and its phenolic constituents are mediated through multiple pathways. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2005;43(4):234-241. View abstract.
- Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., and Janssen, L. J. Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signalling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86(5):264-271. View abstract.
- Griffenhagen GB. Materia medica of Christopher Columbus. Pharmacy in History (USA) 1992;34:131-145.
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- Gupta, Y. K. and Sharma, M. Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2001;23(9):501-503. View abstract.
- Gusseva-Badmaeva AP, Hammermann AF, and Sokolov WS. Drugs of Tibet. Planta Medica (Germany) 1972;21:161-172.
- Habib, S. H., Makpol, S., Abdul, Hamid NA, Das, S., Ngah, W. Z., and Yusof, Y. A. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63(6):807-813. View abstract.
- Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Zheng, Y. N., Li, W., Asami, E., Okuda, H., and Saito, M. [Effects of zingerone on fat storage in ovariectomized rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(8):1195-1201. View abstract.
- Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62(3):219-225. View abstract.
- Horie, S., Yamamoto, H., Michael, G. J., Uchida, M., Belai, A., Watanabe, K., Priestley, J. V., and Murayama, T. Protective role of vanilloid receptor type 1 in HCl-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2004;39(4):303-312. View abstract.
- Ippoushi, K., Azuma, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Higashio, H. -Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions. Life Sci 11-14-2003;73(26):3427-3437. View abstract.
- Ippoushi, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Azuma, K. Mechanism of inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration by -gingerol. Planta Med 2005;71(6):563-566. View abstract.
- Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Akhtar, M. S., Ghayur, M. N., and Gilani, A. H. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-30-2006;106(2):285-287. View abstract.
- Janssen, P. L., Meyboom, S., van Staveren, W. A., de Vegt, F., and Katan, M. B. Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo platelet thromboxane production in humans. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(11):772-774. View abstract.
- Jolad, S. D., Lantz, R. C., Solyom, A. M., Chen, G. J., Bates, R. B., and Timmermann, B. N. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry 2004;65(13):1937-1954. View abstract.
- Jung, H. W., Yoon, C. H., Park, K. M., Han, H. S., and Park, Y. K. Hexane fraction of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus extract inhibits the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells via the NF-kappaB pathway. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(6):1190-1197. View abstract.
- Kadnur, S. V. and Goyal, R. K. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2005;43(12):1161-1164. View abstract.
- Kamtchouing, P., Mbongue Fandio, G. Y., Dimo, T., and Jatsa, H. B. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats. Asian J Androl 2002;4(4):299-301. View abstract.
- Kim, H. W., Murakami, A., Abe, M., Ozawa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Williams, M. V., and Ohigashi, H. Suppressive effects of mioga ginger and ginger constituents on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation, and the expression of inducible pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2005;7(11-12):1621-1629. View abstract.
- Krutzfeldt K. Ginger - heavenly fire. AZ Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung (Germany) 2003;143:83-91.
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