An ear examination is a thorough evaluation of the ears that is done to screen for ear problems, such as hearing loss, ear pain, discharge, lumps, or objects in the ear. An ear examination can detect problems in the ear canal, eardrum, and the middle ear, such as infection, excessive earwax, or an object like a bean or a bead.
During an ear examination, an instrument called an otoscope is used to look at the outer ear canal and eardrum. An otoscope is a handheld instrument with a light, a magnifying lens, and a funnel-shaped viewing piece with a narrow, pointed end called a speculum. A pneumatic otoscope has a rubber bulb that your doctor can squeeze to give a puff of air into the ear canal. This allows the doctor to see how the eardrum moves.
Why It Is Done
An ear examination may be done:
- As part of a routine physical examination.
- To screen babies and children for hearing loss.
- To determine the cause of symptoms such as earache, a feeling of pressure or fullness in the ear, or hearing loss.
- To check for excess wax buildup or an object in the ear canal.
- To find the location of an ear infection. The infection may involve only the external ear canal (otitis externa) or the middle ear behind the eardrum (otitis media).
- To monitor the effectiveness of treatment for an ear problem.
How To Prepare
It is important to sit very still during an ear examination. A young child should be lying down with his or her head turned to the side or sitting on the lap of an adult with the child's head resting securely on the adult's chest. Older children and adults can sit with the head tilted slightly toward the opposite shoulder.
Your doctor may need to remove earwax in order to see the eardrum.
How It Is Done
An ear examination can be done in a doctor's office, a school, or the workplace.
For an ear examination, the doctor uses a special instrument called an otoscope to look into the ear canal and see the eardrum.