Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) involve only the bladder and urethra (the lower urinary system). Pyelonephritis results when a UTI progresses to involve the upper urinary system (the kidneys and ureters).
The kidneys filter the blood to produce urine. Two tubes called the ureters carry urine from the kidneys down to the bladder. Urine travels from the bladder out of the body through the urethra.
Women should urinate right after sexual intercourse.
Women should wipe from front to back after urinating or having a bowel movement.
Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
Drink cranberry juice or any citrus juice.
Use a form of contraception other than a diaphragm and/or spermicidal jelly.
Women should use vaginal estrogen cream if they are past menopause.
Women should avoid bubble baths, which do not cause infections but can irritate the urinary tract.
Pyelonephritis may cause noticeable changes in the urine, such as:
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
Pain when urinating
Increased frequency or urgency of urination
Causes of Pyelonephritis
Most often, the bacteria that cause pyelonephritis are the same as those that cause ordinary urinary tract infections. Bacteria found in stool (such as E. coli or klebsiella) are most common. Uncommonly, bacteria from the skin or the environment cause pyelonephritis.
Conditions that create reduced urine flow make pyelonephritis more likely. When urine flow slows or stops, bacteria can more easily travel up the ureters. Some causes of urine obstruction include: