Mononucleosis tests are blood tests to look for antibodies that indicate mononucleosis (mono), which is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The antibodies are made by the immune system to fight an infection.
Mono tests include:
Monospot test (heterophil test). This quick screening test detects a type of antibody (heterophil antibody) that forms during certain infections. A sample of blood is placed on a microscope slide and mixed with other substances. If heterophil antibodies are present, the blood clumps (agglutinates). This result usually indicates a mono infection. Monospot testing can usually detect antibodies 2 to 9 weeks after a person is infected. It typically is not used to diagnose mono that started more than 6 months earlier.
EBV antibody test. For this test, a sample of blood is mixed with a substance that attaches to antibodies against EBV. A series of tests can detect different types of antibodies to help determine whether you were infected recently or sometime in the past.
Why It Is Done
The monospot test is done to help diagnose a recent mono infection.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody testing is also done to help diagnose mono. The EBV antibody test can help determine whether you have ever been infected with the virus and whether the infection has been recent.
EBV antibody testing is usually done when you have symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and a monospot test result is negative. EBV antibody testing may also be done to check for antibodies to EBV when a person has a disease or uses medicine that causes problems with the immune system.
How To Prepare
No special preparation is required before having this test.
Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results will mean. To help you understand the importance of this test, fill out the medical test information form(What is a PDF document?).
How It Is Done
The monospot test is done on a small sample of blood taken from your fingertip or from a vein. The Epstein-Barr antibody test is done on a blood sample taken from your vein.
Blood test from a finger stick