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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    There is no uniformly accepted staging system for childhood brain tumors. These tumors are classified and treated based on their histology and location within the brain (Table 1).Table 1. The Staging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumors According to Type of Tumor or Pathologic SubtypeTumor TypePathologic SubtypeStaging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent DiseaseCNS = central nervous system.Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin  –Low-Grade AstrocytomasDiffuse fibrillary astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentGemistocytic astrocytomaOligoastrocytomaOligodendrogliomaPilocytic astrocytomaPilomyxoid astrocytomaPleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaProtoplasmic astrocytomaSubependymal giant cell astrocytoma–High-Grade AstrocytomasAnaplastic astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentAnaplastic oligoastrocytomaAnaplastic oligodendrogliomaGiant cell glioblastomaGlioblastomaGliomatosis cerebriGliosarcoma Brain Stem

  2. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 14 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. General Information About Adult Brain TumorsRevised text on factors used to diagnose brain metastases to include diagnostic procedures, including contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain.Treatment Option OverviewAdded text to state that external-beam radiation therapy using either 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy is considered an acceptable technique in radiation therapy delivery. Typically 2- to 3-cm margins on the MRI-based volumes to create the planning target volume are used. Dose escalation using radiosurgery has not improved outcomes.Added Souhami et al. as reference 15.Added Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as a new subsection.Added text to state that a phase III randomized trial compared adjuvant whole-brain radiation therapy

  3. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062849-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Neuroblastoma Screening

  4. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Pituitary Tumors

    Pituitary adenomas can be classified according to staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm, size, endocrine activity, histologic characteristics, hormone production and contents, ultrastructural features, granularity of the cell cytoplasm, cellular composition, cytogenesis, and growth pattern.[1] Recent classifications, however, omit criteria based on tinctorial stains (i.e., acidophilic, basophilic, and chromophobic) because of the poor correlation between staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm and other pathological features of pituitary tumors, such as the type of hormone produced and cellular derivation.[1,2]A unifying pituitary adenoma classification incorporates the histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic studies of the tumor cells, and stresses the importance of hormone production, cellular composition, and cytogenesis. This classification emphasizes the structure-function relationship and attempts to correlate morphologic features with secretory

  5. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062900-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Brain Tumors Treatment

  6. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors

    The classification of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on histology and location.[1] Tumors are classically categorized as infratentorial, supratentorial, parasellar, or spinal. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification, and will likely alter classification and nomenclature in the future.Primary CNS spinal cord tumors comprise approximately 1% to 2% of all childhood CNS tumors. The classification of spinal cord tumors is based on histopathologic characteristics of the tumor and does not differ from that of primary brain tumors.[2,3,4]Infratentorial (posterior fossa) tumors include the following:Cerebellar astrocytomas (most commonly pilocytic, but also fibrillary and less frequently, high-grade).Medulloblastomas (classic, desmoplastic/nodular, extensive nodularity, anaplastic, or large cell) and variants.Ependymomas (cellular, papillary,

  7. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    This cancer treatment information summary provides an overview of the diagnosis,classification,treatment,and prognosis of childhood brain stem gliomas. The National Cancer Institute provides the PDQ pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals,patients,and the public. These ...

  8. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 14 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

  9. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Management of Specific Tumor Types and Locations

    Brain Stem GliomasStandard treatment options:Radiation therapy.Brain stem gliomas have relatively poor prognoses that correlate with histology (when biopsies are performed), location, and extent of tumor. The overall median survival time of patients in studies has been 44 to 74 weeks.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult brain stem glioma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.Pineal Astrocytic TumorsStandard treatment options:Surgery plus radiation therapy for patients with pilocytic or diffuse astrocytoma.Surgery plus radiation therapy and chemotherapy for patients with higher grade tumors.Depending on the degree of anaplasia, pineal astrocytomas vary in prognoses. Higher grades have worse prognoses. Pilocytic

  10. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with brain or spinal cord tumors should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.Treatment

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