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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    In childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, treatment options are based on several factors.Staging is the process used to find how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread within the brain, spinal cord, or to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage in order to plan cancer treatment. In childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, there is no standard staging system. Instead, the plan for cancer treatment depends on several factors:The type of tumor and where the tumor formed in the brain.Whether the tumor is newly diagnosed or recurrent. A newly diagnosed brain or spinal cord tumor is one that has never been treated. A recurrent childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is one that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors may come back in the same place or in another part of the brain, or spinal cord. Sometimes they come back in another part of the body. The tumor may come back many years after first being treated. Tests

  2. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Adult Brain Tumors

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about adult brain tumors, see the following:Brain Tumor Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Brain TumorsDrugs Approved for Brain TumorsFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  3. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Low-risk neuroblastoma represents nearly one-half of all newly diagnosed patients. The success of prior Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials has contributed to the continued reduction in therapy for select patients with neuroblastoma.The COG low-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 6. Table 6. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Low-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage

  4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  5. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    There is no uniformly accepted staging system for childhood brain tumors. These tumors are classified and treated based on their histology and location within the brain (Table 1).Table 1. The Staging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumors According to Type of Tumor or Pathologic SubtypeTumor TypePathologic SubtypeStaging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent DiseaseCNS = central nervous system.Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin  –Low-Grade AstrocytomasDiffuse fibrillary astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentGemistocytic astrocytomaOligoastrocytomaOligodendrogliomaPilocytic astrocytomaPilomyxoid astrocytomaPleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaProtoplasmic astrocytomaSubependymal giant cell astrocytoma–High-Grade AstrocytomasAnaplastic astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentAnaplastic oligoastrocytomaAnaplastic oligodendrogliomaGiant cell glioblastomaGlioblastomaGliomatosis cerebriGliosarcoma Brain Stem

  6. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062849-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Neuroblastoma Screening

  7. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Pituitary Tumors

    Pituitary adenomas can be classified according to staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm, size, endocrine activity, histologic characteristics, hormone production and contents, ultrastructural features, granularity of the cell cytoplasm, cellular composition, cytogenesis, and growth pattern.[1] Recent classifications, however, omit criteria based on tinctorial stains (i.e., acidophilic, basophilic, and chromophobic) because of the poor correlation between staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm and other pathological features of pituitary tumors, such as the type of hormone produced and cellular derivation.[1,2]A unifying pituitary adenoma classification incorporates the histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic studies of the tumor cells, and stresses the importance of hormone production, cellular composition, and cytogenesis. This classification emphasizes the structure-function relationship and attempts to correlate morphologic features with secretory

  8. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors

    The classification of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on histology and location.[1] Tumors are classically categorized as infratentorial, supratentorial, parasellar, or spinal. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification, and will likely alter classification and nomenclature in the future.Primary CNS spinal cord tumors comprise approximately 1% to 2% of all childhood CNS tumors. The classification of spinal cord tumors is based on histopathologic characteristics of the tumor and does not differ from that of primary brain tumors.[2,3,4]Infratentorial (posterior fossa) tumors include the following:Cerebellar astrocytomas (most commonly pilocytic, but also fibrillary and less frequently, high-grade).Medulloblastomas (classic, desmoplastic/nodular, extensive nodularity, anaplastic, or large cell) and variants.Ependymomas (cellular, papillary,

  9. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    This cancer treatment information summary provides an overview of the diagnosis,classification,treatment,and prognosis of childhood brain stem gliomas. The National Cancer Institute provides the PDQ pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals,patients,and the public. These ...

  10. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 14 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

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