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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Arachnoid Cysts

      Important It is possible that the main title of the report Arachnoid Cysts is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...

    2. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Neuroblastoma

      Because most children with neuroblastoma in North America are treated according to the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk-group assignment, the treatments described in this summary are based on COG risk group assignment. Each child is assigned to a low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk group (refer to Tables 6, 7, and 8 for more information) based on the following:[1,2,3,4,5,6]International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage.Age.International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification (INPC).Ploidy.Amplification of the MYCN oncogene within tumor tissue.[1,2,3,4,5,6]Other biological factors that influence treatment selection include unbalanced 11q loss of heterozygosity and loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 1p.[7,8]The treatment of neuroblastoma has evolved over the past 60 years. Generally, treatment is based on whether the tumor is low, intermediate, or high risk:For low-risk tumors the approach is either observation or resection, and survival is greater than

    3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More about Childhood CNS Atypical Teratoid / Rhabdoid Tumor and Other Childhood Brain Tumors

      For more information about childhood central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and other childhood brain tumors, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ Brain TumorsComputed Tomography (CT) Scans and CancerPediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerChildhood CancersCureSearch for Children's CancerLate Effects of Treatment for Childhood CancerAdolescents and Young Adults with CancerYoung People with Cancer: A Handbook for ParentsCare for Children and Adolescents with CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation for Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

    5. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062962-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    6. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas

      Childhood low-grade astrocytomas may recur many years after initial treatment. Recurrent disease is usually at the primary tumor site, although multifocal or widely disseminated disease to other intracranial sites and to the spinal leptomeninges has been documented.[1,2] Most children whose low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas recur will harbor low-grade lesions; however, malignant transformation is possible.[3] Surveillance imaging will frequently identify asymptomatic recurrences.[4]At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of the relapse is indicated. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the

    7. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Pituitary Tumors

      Pituitary adenomas can be classified according to staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm, size, endocrine activity, histologic characteristics, hormone production and contents, ultrastructural features, granularity of the cell cytoplasm, cellular composition, cytogenesis, and growth pattern.[1] Recent classifications, however, omit criteria based on tinctorial stains (i.e., acidophilic, basophilic, and chromophobic) because of the poor correlation between staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm and other pathological features of pituitary tumors, such as the type of hormone produced and cellular derivation.[1,2]A unifying pituitary adenoma classification incorporates the histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic studies of the tumor cells, and stresses the importance of hormone production, cellular composition, and cytogenesis. This classification emphasizes the structure-function relationship and attempts to correlate morphologic features with secretory

    8. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Growth Hormone (GH)-Producing Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for GH-producing pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach).Dopamine analogues, such as bromocriptine.Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide. The GH-receptor antagonist, pegvisomant.[1,2]Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.Treatment for patients with acromegaly includes surgical, radiation, and medical therapies.[3] Treatment will depend on the size and extent of the tumor and the need for rapid cessation of hormone function that results in serious clinical sequelae (i.e., hypertension and cardiomyopathy). Microadenomectomy or macroadenoma decompression is approached transsphenoidally in most patients. Increasingly, endoscopic surgery is used to allow the entire surgical field to be viewed and to allow tumor tissue that would otherwise be inaccessible with rigid instruments to be safely resected. Complete return of GH

    9. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 28 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Images were added to this summary and editorial changes were made.

    10. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Prolactin-Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Prolactin (PRL)-Producing Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for PRL-producing pituitary tumors include the following:Dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline and bromocriptine.[1,2,3,4,5] Surgery (second-line).[1,2]Radiation therapy (occasionally).[1,2]When the pituitary tumor secretes PRL, treatment will depend on tumor size and the symptoms that result from excessive hormone production. Patients with PRL-secreting tumors are treated with surgery and radiation therapy.[1]Most microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas respond well to medical therapy with ergot-derived dopamine agonists, including bromocriptine and cabergoline.[2] For many patients, cabergoline has a more satisfactory side effect profile than bromocriptine. Cabergoline therapy may be successful in treating patients whose prolactinomas are resistant to bromocriptine or who cannot tolerate bromocriptine, and this treatment has a success rate of more than 90% in patients with newly

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