General Information About Adult Brain Tumors
Incidence and MortalityNote: Estimated new cases and deaths from brain and other nervous system tumors in the United States in 2013:New cases: 23,130.Deaths: 14,080.Brain tumors account for 85% to 90% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Available registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for 2007 indicate that the combined incidence of primary invasive CNS tumors in the United States is 6.36 per 100,000 persons per year with an estimated mortality of 4.22 per 100,000 persons per year. Worldwide, approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other CNS tumors were diagnosed in the year 2008, with an estimated 175,000 deaths. In general, the incidence of primary brain tumors is higher in whites than in blacks, and mortality is higher in males than in females.Few definitive observations on environmental or occupational causes of primary CNS tumors have been made. Exposure to vinyl chloride may predispose to the
Treatment Option Overview
The treatments described in this summary are based on the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Risk Stratification Schema,which is described in the Stage Information section of this summary. The risk of progression of the tumor causing morbidity and mortality is gauged based on the stage of the tumor,the age of the child at diagnosis,and tumor biology. The biological features considered are the ...
General Information About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2002, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%. Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close follow-up because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.Primary brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. Brain tumors are classified according to histology, but tumor location and extent of spread are important factors that affect treatment and prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification.IncidencePrimary central
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Neuroblastoma Treatment
Summary of Evidence
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Neuroblastoma Treatment and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Intervention Screening,usually at age 6 months,for urine vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid,which are metabolites of the hormones norepinephrine and dopamine. Benefits Based on solid evidence,screening for neuroblastoma does not lead to ...
Changes to This Summary (03 / 15 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Although there is no formal staging system,ependymomas can be divided into supratentorial and infratentorial tumors. They usually originate in the ependymal linings of ventricles in the posterior fossa or supratentorial region,and have access to the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and therefore may spread throughout the entire neuraxis. Thirty percent of childhood ependymomas arise outside of the ...
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Brain Tumors Treatment
Stages of Adult Brain Tumors
There is no standard staging system for adult brain tumors. The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. There is no standard staging system for brain tumors. Brain tumors that begin in the brain may spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord,but they rarely spread to other parts of the body. Treatment of brain tumors is based on the type of cell in which the tumor ...
Stage Information and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors
There is no uniformly accepted staging system for childhood brain tumors. These tumors are classified and treated based on their histology and location within the brain (Table 1).Table 1. The Staging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumors According to Type of Tumor or Pathologic SubtypeTumor TypePathologic SubtypeStaging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent DiseaseCNS = central nervous system.Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin –Low-Grade AstrocytomasDiffuse fibrillary astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentGemistocytic astrocytomaOligoastrocytomaOligodendrogliomaPilocytic astrocytomaPilomyxoid astrocytomaPleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaProtoplasmic astrocytomaSubependymal giant cell astrocytoma–High-Grade AstrocytomasAnaplastic astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentAnaplastic oligoastrocytomaAnaplastic oligodendrogliomaGiant cell glioblastomaGlioblastomaGliomatosis cerebriGliosarcoma Brain Stem