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Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Neuroblastoma

    Staging EvaluationA thorough evaluation for metastatic disease is performed before therapy initiation. The following studies are typically performed:[1]Metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scanBefore resection of the primary tumor, bone involvement is assessed by mIBG scan, which is applicable to all sites of disease, and by technetium-99 scan if the results of the mIBG scan are negative or unavailable.[2,3] Approximately 90% of neuroblastomas will be mIBG avid. It has a sensitivity and specificity of 90% to 99% and is equally distributed between primary and metastatic sites.[4] Although iodine 128 (123 I) has a shorter half-life, it is preferred over131 I because of its lower radiation dose, better quality images, less thyroid toxicity, and lower cost. Imaging with 123 I-mIBG is optimal for identifying soft tissue and bony metastases and is superior to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computerized tomography (PET-CT) in a prospective comparison.[5] Baseline mIBG

  2. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General InformationAdded text to state that the presence of the H3F3A K27M mutation occurs exclusively in diffuse high-grade pediatric astrocytomas (cited Gielen et al. as reference 35).Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade AstrocytomasAdded Gnekow et al. as reference 28.Added text to state that a multicenter, phase III, placebo-controlled trial of 117 patients confirmed these earlier findings; 35% of the patients in the everolimus group had at least a 50% reduction in the size of the SEGA, versus no reduction in the placebo group (cited Franz et al. as reference 54 and level of evidence 1iDiv).Treatment of Recurrent Childhood Low-Grade AstrocytomasAdded text to state that surveillance imaging will frequently identify asymptomatic recurrences (cited Udaka et al. as reference 4).Added Gnekow et al.

  3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  4. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062915-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pituitary Tumors Treatment

  5. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Neuroblastoma Cancer

    Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue.Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney, in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands make important hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Neuroblastoma may also begin in the abdomen, chest, spinal cord, or in nerve tissue near the spine in the neck.Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.Neuroblastoma most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than 5 years of age.See the PDQ summary on Neuroblastoma Treatment for more

  6. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  7. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Childhood Ependymoma

    Although there is no formal staging system, ependymomas can be divided into supratentorial, infratentorial, and spinal tumors. In children, approximately 30% of childhood ependymomas arise in supratentorial regions of the brain and 70% in the posterior fossa.[1,2,3] They usually originate in the ependymal linings of ventricles or central canal or ventriculus terminalis of the spinal cord, and have access to the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, these tumors may spread throughout the neuraxis, although dissemination is noted in less than 10% of patients with Grade II and Grade III ependymomas. Myxopapillary ependymomas are more likely to disseminate to the nervous system early in the course of illness. Every patient with ependymoma should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging of the spinal cord and whole brain. This is ideally done prior to surgery to avoid confusion with postoperative blood. The most sensitive method available for evaluating spinal cord subarachnoid metastasis

  8. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Neuroblastoma Treatment and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Intervention Screening,usually at age 6 months,for urine vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid,which are metabolites of the hormones norepinephrine and dopamine. Benefits Based on solid evidence,screening for neuroblastoma does not lead to ...

  9. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    The goals of treatment of pituitary adenomas include normalization of hormonal secretion (i.e., normalization of hypersecretion and improvement in hypofunction) and resolution or cessation of the progression of neurological defects. Standard treatments for patients with pituitary tumors include:Surgery.Radiation therapy.Medical therapy.A combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and medical therapy.The treatment of choice must be individualized and is dictated by the type of tumor, the nature of the excessive hormonal expression, and whether or not the tumor extends into the brain around the pituitary.[1,2]The transsphenoidal microsurgical approach to a pituitary lesion is the most widely employed surgical approach to pituitary lesions and represents a major development in the safe surgical treatment of both hormonally active and nonfunctioning tumors.[3,4,5] This approach is often successful in debulking tumors, even those that have a significant suprasellar extension. A

  10. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062962-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

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