Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Stage 4S Neuroblastoma
Most cases of stage 4S neuroblastoma do not require therapy. However, if bulk disease is causing organ compromise and risk of death, low-dose to moderate-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy is used. Eight percent to 10% of these patients will have MYCN amplification and are treated with high-risk protocols. (Refer to the Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma section of this summary for more information about the treatment of stage 4S high-risk neuroblastoma.)Table 9. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Stage 4S Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybRisk GroupINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, = 1 is
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
In childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, treatment options are based on several factors.Staging is the process used to find how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread within the brain, spinal cord, or to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage in order to plan cancer treatment. In childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, there is no standard staging system. Instead, the plan for cancer treatment depends on several factors:The type of tumor and where the tumor formed in the brain.Whether the tumor is newly diagnosed or recurrent. A newly diagnosed brain or spinal cord tumor is one that has never been treated. A recurrent childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is one that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors may come back in the same place or in another part of the brain, or spinal cord. Sometimes they come back in another part of the body. The tumor may come back many years after first being treated. Tests
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2002, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%. Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close follow-up because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.Primary brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. Brain tumors are classified according to histology, but tumor location and extent of spread are important factors that affect treatment and prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification.IncidencePrimary central
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood CNS Atypical Teratoid / Rhabdoid Tumor
There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. This tumor is classified as newly diagnosed or recurrent. Treatment depends on how much cancer remains after surgery and the age of the child. Results from the following procedures are used to plan treatment:MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the brain and spinal cord. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Lumbar puncture: A procedure used to collect cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal column. This is done by placing a needle into the spinal column. This procedure is also called an LP or spinal tap.
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Arachnoid Cysts is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to this Summary (06 / 20 / 2014)
To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors. The therapy for both children and adults with supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Outcome in high-grade gliomas occurring in childhood may be more favorable than that in adults, but it is not clear if this difference is caused by biologic variations in tumor characteristics, therapies used, tumor resectability, or other factors that are presently not understood. The ability to obtain a complete resection is associated with a better prognosis. Radiation therapy is administered to a field that widely encompasses the entire tumor. The radiation therapy dose to the tumor bed is usually at least 54 Gy. Despite such therapy, overall survival rates remain poor. Similarly poor survival is seen in children with spinal cord primaries and children with
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Astrocytoma, Malignant is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Histopathologic Classification of Childhood Ependymal Tumors
In the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors, ependymal tumors are classified into four main subtypes:Subependymoma (WHO Grade I).Myxopapillary ependymoma (WHO Grade I).Ependymoma (WHO Grade II). Variants include cellular, papillary, tanycytic, clear cell, and mixed.Anaplastic (also known as malignant) ependymoma (WHO Grade III).The subependymoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm, typically attached to the ventricle wall, and is composed of glial tumor cell clusters embedded in a fibrillary matrix. The myxopapillary ependymoma arises almost exclusively in the location of the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and filum terminale of the spinal cord, and is characterized histologically by tumor cells arranged in a papillary manner around vascularized myxoid stromal cores.The ependymoma, which is considered a Grade II neoplasm originating from the walls of the ventricles or from the spinal canal, is composed of neoplastic ependymal cells.