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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of neuroblastoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

  2. Significance

    Incidence and MortalityAbout 7% of all malignancies in children younger than 15 years are neuroblastomas. About one quarter of cancers in the first year of life are neuroblastomas, making this the most frequent histological type of infant cancer.[1,2] The incidence rate of the disease in children younger than 1 year is about 35 per million but declines rapidly with age to about 1 per million between ages 10 and 14 years.[3] Males appear to be affected slightly more commonly than females, with about five cases occurring in boys to every four occurring in girls. Screening Method and SensitivityThe risk factors for and causes of neuroblastoma have not been established, and therefore it is not possible to provide information or advice for the primary prevention of this disease. It is generally thought that many neuroblastomas are present and detectable at birth, thereby allowing for detection of tumors by a single, once-in-a-lifetime screening test, such as those used for neonatal

  3. To Learn More About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    For more information about childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, see the following:What You Need To Know About™ Brain TumorsComputed Tomography (CT) Scans and CancerPediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerChildhood CancersCureSearch for Children's CancerLate Effects of Treatment for Childhood CancerAdolescents and Young Adults with CancerYoung People with Cancer: A Handbook for ParentsCare for Children and Adolescents with CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation for Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  4. Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  5. About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through

  6. nci_ncicdr0000062971-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Ependymoma Treatment

  7. nci_ncicdr0000062697-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Brain Tumors Treatment

  8. What is screening?

    Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...

  9. Risks of Neuroblastoma Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of neuroblastoma screening include the following: Neuroblastoma may be overdiagnosed. When a screening test result leads to the diagnosis and treatment of a disease that may never have caused symptoms or become life-threatening, it is called overdiagnosis. For example, when a urine test result shows a higher than normal amount of homovanillic acid (HMA) or vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA), tests and treatments for neuroblastoma are likely to be done, but may not be needed. At this time, it is not possible to know which neuroblastomas found by a screening test will cause symptoms and which neuroblastomas will not. Diagnostic tests (such as biopsies)

  10. Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    The Children's Oncology Group (COG) high-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 8.Table 8. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma High-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, DI = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage 2A/2B symptomatic patients with spinal cord compression, neurologic deficits, or other symptoms are treated with immediate chemotherapy for four cycles.d INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms

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