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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent / Progressive Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

      Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine GliomasGiven the dismal prognosis for patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, progression of the pontine lesion is anticipated generally within 1 year from initial radiation therapy. In most cases, biopsy at the time of clinical or radiologic progression is neither necessary nor recommended. To date, no salvage regimen has been shown to extend survival. Patients should be considered for entry into trials of novel therapeutic approaches because there are no standard agents that have demonstrated a clinically significant activity. Concomitant palliative care should be provided for these patients whether or not disease-directed therapy is administered. Focal or Low-Grade Brain Stem GliomasAt the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of the relapse may be indicated for selected low-grade lesions. Biopsy or surgical resection should be considered for confirmation of relapse when other entities such as secondary tumor and

    2. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

      The plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is in one area of the brain or has spread throughout the brain.Staging is the process used to find out how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. There is no standard staging system for childhood brain stem glioma. Instead, the plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is diffuse (spread throughout the brain) or focal (in one area of the brain):Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is a tumor that has spread widely throughout the brain stem. A biopsy is usually not done for this type of brain stem glioma and it is not removed by surgery. A diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually diagnosed using imaging studies.Focal or low-grade glioma is a tumor that is in one area of the brain stem. A biopsy may be done and the tumor removed during the same surgery.The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) childhood brain stem glioma is

    3. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      There are different types of treatment for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with brain or spinal cord tumors should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.Treatment

    4. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

      For more information about childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, see the following:What You Need To Know About™ Brain TumorsComputed Tomography (CT) Scans and CancerPediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerChildhood CancersCureSearch for Children's CancerLate Effects of Treatment for Childhood CancerAdolescents and Young Adults with CancerYoung People with Cancer: A Handbook for ParentsCare for Children and Adolescents with CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation for Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

    5. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma

      The Children's Oncology Group (COG) high-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 8.Table 8. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma High-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, DI = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage 2A/2B symptomatic patients with spinal cord compression, neurologic deficits, or other symptoms are treated with immediate chemotherapy for four cycles.d INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms

    6. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 07 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    7. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Pituitary Carcinomas Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Pituitary CarcinomasStandard treatment options for pituitary carcinomas include the following:Surgery.Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, and cabergoline, for prolactin (PRL)-producing carcinomas.Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, for growth hormone (GH)-producing and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing carcinomas.Adjuvant radiation therapy, which does not appear to change the disease's outcome.Chemotherapy, which is of little benefit.Some reports indicate that as many as 88% of pituitary carcinomas are endocrinologically active, and adrenocorticotrophin hormone-secreting tumors are the most common.[1] Treatments for patients with pituitary carcinomas are palliative, with the mean survival time ranging from 2 years to 2.4 years, though several case reports of long-term survivors have been published.[2,3,4,5]Treatment options for patients with pituitary carcinomas include resection and dopamine agonists for

    8. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    9. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Histopathologic Classification of Childhood Ependymal Tumors

      In the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors, ependymal tumors are classified into four main subtypes:[1]Subependymoma (WHO Grade I).Myxopapillary ependymoma (WHO Grade I).Ependymoma (WHO Grade II). Variants include cellular, papillary, tanycytic, clear cell, and mixed.Anaplastic (also known as malignant) ependymoma (WHO Grade III).The subependymoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm, typically attached to the ventricle wall, and is composed of glial tumor cell clusters embedded in a fibrillary matrix. The myxopapillary ependymoma arises almost exclusively in the location of the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and filum terminale of the spinal cord, and is characterized histologically by tumor cells arranged in a papillary manner around vascularized myxoid stromal cores.The ependymoma, which is considered a Grade II neoplasm originating from the walls of the ventricles or from the spinal canal, is composed of neoplastic ependymal cells.

    10. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

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