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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    The plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is in one area of the brain or has spread throughout the brain.Staging is the process used to find out how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. There is no standard staging system for childhood brain stem glioma. Instead, the plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is diffuse (spread throughout the brain) or focal (in one area of the brain):Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is a tumor that has spread widely throughout the brain stem. A biopsy is usually not done for this type of brain stem glioma and it is not removed by surgery. A diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually diagnosed using imaging studies.Focal or low-grade glioma is a tumor that is in one area of the brain stem. A biopsy may be done and the tumor removed during the same surgery.The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) childhood brain stem glioma is

  2. About This PDQ Summary

    Most patients with high-grade astrocytomas or gliomas will eventually have tumor recurrence, usually within 3 years of original diagnosis but perhaps many years after initial treatment. Disease may recur at the primary tumor site, at the margin of the resection/radiation bed, or at noncontiguous central nervous system sites. Systemic relapse is rare but may occur. At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation for extent of relapse is indicated for all malignant tumors. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients for whom initial treatment fails may benefit from additional treatment.[1]

  3. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Newly Diagnosed Childhood CNS Atypical Teratoid / Rhabdoid Tumor

    There is no standard treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Combinations of treatments are used for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.Because atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is fast-growing, a combination of treatments is usually given. Most treatments include both surgery and chemotherapy. Treatments for AT/RT may include combinations of the following:Surgery.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant.Clinical trials of new treatments should be considered for patients with newly diagnosed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is

  4. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood brain stem glioma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a

  5. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Tumors

    Tumors of many different cell types may form in the spinal cord. Low-grade spinal cord tumors usually do not spread. High-grade spinal cord tumors may spread to other places in the spinal cord or to the brain. See the following PDQ summaries for more information on staging and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood spinal cord tumors:Childhood Astrocytomas TreatmentChildhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors TreatmentChildhood Ependymoma Treatment

  6. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 28 / 2014)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Images were added to this summary and editorial changes were made.

  7. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Pituitary Tumors Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Recurrent Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for recurrent pituitary tumors include the following:Radiation therapy for postsurgical recurrence, which offers a high likelihood of local control.[1,2]Reirradiation, which provides long-term local control and control of visual symptoms.[3]The question and selection of further treatment for patients who relapse is dependent on many factors, including the specific type of pituitary tumor, prior treatment, visual and hormonal complications, and individual patient considerations. Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Recurrent Pituitary TumorsTreatment options under clinical evaluation for recurrent pituitary tumors include the following:Stereotactic radiation surgery.[4,5,6]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent pituitary tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by

  8. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with brain or spinal cord tumors should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.Treatment

  9. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Classification of Adult Brain Tumors

    This classification is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.[1] The WHO approach incorporates and interrelates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers in an attempt to construct a cellular classification that is universally applicable and prognostically valid. Earlier attempts to develop a TNM-based classification were dropped: tumor size (T) is less relevant than tumor histology and location, nodal status (N) does not apply because the brain and spinal cord have no lymphatics, and metastatic spread (M) rarely applies because most patients with CNS neoplasms do not live long enough to develop metastatic disease.[2]The WHO grading of CNS tumors establishes a malignancy scale based on histologic features of the tumor.[3] The histologic

  10. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Pituitary Carcinomas Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Pituitary CarcinomasStandard treatment options for pituitary carcinomas include the following:Surgery.Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, and cabergoline, for prolactin (PRL)-producing carcinomas.Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, for growth hormone (GH)-producing and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing carcinomas.Adjuvant radiation therapy, which does not appear to change the disease's outcome.Chemotherapy, which is of little benefit.Some reports indicate that as many as 88% of pituitary carcinomas are endocrinologically active, and adrenocorticotrophin hormone-secreting tumors are the most common.[1] Treatments for patients with pituitary carcinomas are palliative, with the mean survival time ranging from 2 years to 2.4 years, though several case reports of long-term survivors have been published.[2,3,4,5]Treatment options for patients with pituitary carcinomas include resection and dopamine agonists for

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