Changes to This Summary (03 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Images were added to this summary and editorial changes were made.
About This PDQ Summary
PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood astrocytomas. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND ...
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Astrocytoma, Malignant is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...
There is no generally recognized staging system for childhood astrocytomas. For the purposes of this summary,childhood astrocytomas will be described as low-grade astrocytoma (pilocytic astrocytomas and diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas) or high-grade astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme) and as "untreated" or "recurrent." ...
Nonfunctioning Pituitary Tumors Treatment
Standard Treatment Options for Nonfunctioning Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for nonfunctioning pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (preferably with a transsphenoidal approach) followed by close observation with radiation therapy reserved for recurrence.[1,2]Radiation therapy.[1,2,3]Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.[1,2]The selection of treatment for patients with nonfunctioning (endocrine-inactive) tumors will depend on tumor size, the progressive course of the disease, and anatomical structures affected by the tumor extension. The majority of patients present with suprasellar extension and visual field deficits. In addition, many have hormone deficits prior to treatment. The initial treatment of patients with gonadotroph adenomas is usually by transsphenoidal surgery, particularly if the adenoma presents with neurological symptoms, because the effect of radiation therapy occurs too slowly, and no reliable medical therapy exists.Surgical
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Neuroblastoma Treatment
Treatment of Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma
Recurrence is not uncommon in both benign and malignant childhood brain tumors and may develop many years after initial treatment. For ependymoma,delays beyond 10 to 15 years have been reported.[ 1,2 ] Disease generally recurs at the primary tumor site,even in children with malignant ependymomas.[ 3,4 ] Systemic relapse is extremely rare. At time of relapse,a complete evaluation for ...
PDQ IS A COMPREHENSIVE CANCER DATABASE AVAILABLE ON NCI'S WEB SITE. PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health,the federal government's focal point for biomedical research. ...
Treatment Option Overview
Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available,accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new ...
Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma
In North America,the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is investigating a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigns all patients to low-risk,intermediate-risk,and high-risk groups based on age,International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage,and tumor biology (i.e.,MYCN gene amplification,Shimada classification,and DNA ploidy).[ 1 ] (Risk groups are defined in Table 1 of ...