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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors

    The classification of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on histology and location.[1] Tumors are classically categorized as infratentorial, supratentorial, parasellar, or spinal. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification, and will likely alter classification and nomenclature in the future.Primary CNS spinal cord tumors comprise approximately 1% to 2% of all childhood CNS tumors. The classification of spinal cord tumors is based on histopathologic characteristics of the tumor and does not differ from that of primary brain tumors.[2,3,4]Infratentorial (posterior fossa) tumors include the following:Cerebellar astrocytomas (most commonly pilocytic, but also fibrillary and less frequently, high-grade).Medulloblastomas (classic, desmoplastic/nodular, extensive nodularity, anaplastic, or large cell) and variants.Ependymomas (cellular, papillary,

  2. To Learn More About Adult Brain Tumors

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about adult brain tumors,see the following: Brain Tumor Home Page What You Need to Know Aboutâ„¢ Brain Tumors National Cancer Institute Brain Tumor Study in Adults: Fact Sheet For general cancer info

  3. About This PDQ Summary

    PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about neuroblastoma screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND UPDATES This ...

  4. nci_ncicdr0000062680-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

  5. Treatment Options by Type of Adult Brain Tumor

    Brain Stem Gliomas Treatment of brain stem gliomas may include the following: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy. A clinical trial of new anticancer drugs and/or biologic therapy. Pineal Astrocytic Tumors Treatment of pineal astrocytic tumors may include the following: Surgery and radiation therapy,with or without chemotherapy. A clinical trial of external radiation therapy plus hyperthermia .

  6. General Information About Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    In childhood brain and spinal cord tumors,treatment options are based on several factors. Staging is the process used to find how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread within the brain,spinal cord,or to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage in order to plan cancer treatment. In childhood brain and spinal cord tumors,there is no standard staging system. ...

  7. Recurrent Adult Brain Tumors

    SurgeryRe-resection of recurrent brain tumors is used in some patients. However, the majority of patients do not qualify because of a deteriorating condition or technically inoperable tumors. The evidence is limited to noncontrolled studies and case series on patients who are healthy enough and have small enough tumors to technically debulk. The impact of reoperation versus patient selection on survival is not known.Localized ChemotherapyCarmustine wafers have been investigated in the setting of recurrent malignant gliomas, but the impact on survival is less clear than at the time of initial diagnosis and resection. In a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 222 patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors requiring reoperation were randomly assigned to receive implanted carmustine wafers or placebo biodegradable wafers.[1] Approximately half of the patients had received prior systemic chemotherapy. The two treatment groups were well balanced at baseline.

  8. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)-Producing Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for ACTH-producing pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach).[1,2,3]Surgery plus radiation therapy.[1,2,4]Radiation therapy.[1,2,4]Steroidogenesis inhibitors, including mitotane, metyrapone, ketoconazole, and aminoglutethimide.[1,2,5]For patients with corticotroph adenomas, transsphenoidal microsurgery is the treatment of choice.[1,2] Remission rates reported in most series are approximately 70% to 90%.[1] In a series of 216 patients, who were operated on using a transsphenoidal approach, 75% experienced long-term remission, 21% experienced persistence of Cushing disease, and 9% had recurrence after the initial correction of the hypercortisolism.[3] The average time interval for reoperation was 3.8 years. Seventy-nine percent of the tumors were microadenomas, and 18% were macroadenomas; 86% of the cases with microadenoma had

  9. General Information About Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem. The brain stem is the part of the brain connected to the spinal cord. It is located in the lowest part of the brain,just above the back of the neck. The brain stem is the part of the brain that controls breathing,heart rate,and nerves and muscles used in ...

  10. About This PDQ Summary

    PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about the treatment of adult brain tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND ...

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