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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. General Information

    The National Cancer Institute provides the PDQ pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals,patients,and the public. In recent decades,dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require ...

  2. About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about neuroblastoma screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

  3. Stage Information and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    There is no uniformly accepted staging system for childhood brain tumors. These tumors are classified and treated based on their histology and location within the brain (Table 1).Table 1. The Staging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumors According to Type of Tumor or Pathologic SubtypeTumor TypePathologic SubtypeStaging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent DiseaseCNS = central nervous system.Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin  –Low-Grade AstrocytomasDiffuse fibrillary astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentGemistocytic astrocytomaOligoastrocytomaOligodendrogliomaPilocytic astrocytomaPilomyxoid astrocytomaPleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaProtoplasmic astrocytomaSubependymal giant cell astrocytoma–High-Grade AstrocytomasAnaplastic astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentAnaplastic oligoastrocytomaAnaplastic oligodendrogliomaGiant cell glioblastomaGlioblastomaGliomatosis cerebriGliosarcoma Brain Stem

  4. Stages of Adult Brain Tumors

    There is no standard staging system for adult brain and spinal cord tumors.The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. There is no standard staging system for brain and spinal cord tumors. Brain tumors that begin in the brain may spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord, but they rarely spread to other parts of the body. Treatment of brain and spinal cord tumors is based the following:The type of cell in which the tumor began.Where the tumor formed in the brain or spinal cord.The amount of cancer left after surgery.The grade of the tumor.Treatment of brain tumors that have spread to the brain from other parts of the body is based on the number of tumors in the brain.Imaging tests may be repeated after surgery to help plan more treatment.Some of the tests and procedures used to diagnose a brain or spinal cord tumor may be repeated after treatment to find out how much tumor is left.

  5. Treatment Option Overview

    The goals of treatment of pituitary adenomas include normalization of hormonal secretion (i.e., normalization of hypersecretion and improvement in hypofunction) and resolution or cessation of the progression of neurological defects. Standard treatments for patients with pituitary tumors include:Surgery.Radiation therapy.Medical therapy.A combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and medical therapy.The treatment of choice must be individualized and is dictated by the type of tumor, the nature of the excessive hormonal expression, and whether or not the tumor extends into the brain around the pituitary.[1,2]The transsphenoidal microsurgical approach to a pituitary lesion is the most widely employed surgical approach to pituitary lesions and represents a major development in the safe surgical treatment of both hormonally active and nonfunctioning tumors.[3,4,5] This approach is often successful in debulking tumors, even those that have a significant suprasellar extension. A

  6. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with adult brain and spinal cord tumors. Different types of treatment are available for patients with adult brain and spinal cord tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used:Watchful waitingWatchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient's condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change.Surgery Surgery may be used to diagnose and treat adult brain and spinal cord tumors.

  7. Changes to this Summary (09 / 06 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was reformatted.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  8. Changes to This Summary (01 / 30 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Treatment of Recurrent Childhood EpendymomaAdded Bouffet et al. as reference 8.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  9. To Learn More About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    For more information about childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, see the following:What You Need To Know About™ Brain TumorsComputed Tomography (CT) Scans and CancerPediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerChildhood CancersCureSearch for Children's CancerLate Effects of Treatment for Childhood CancerAdolescents and Young Adults with CancerYoung People with Cancer: A Handbook for ParentsCare for Children and Adolescents with CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation for Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  10. Changes to This Summary (03 / 22 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Images were added to this summary and editorial changes were made.

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