An integrated approach to management involves educating family members about the nature of the delirium syndrome and its potential treatment.[1,2,3] Family concerns, particularly the misinterpretation of symptoms such as agitation, emotional lability, and disinhibition, must be addressed. Depending on the clinical circumstances, guarded optimism regarding reversibility can be expressed. On the basis of discussion with family members, a consensus is then reached on the goals of care; this, in turn, will determine the desired and appropriate level of assessment and therapeutic intervention, which could be directed at identifying and treating underlying precipitants to reverse or improve delirium. The extent of assessment will likely be influenced by the clinical setting, disease variables, and level of distress. It may therefore be appropriate in some situations to forego further assessment and focus solely on symptomatic treatment.
Regardless of the level of investigational or therapeutic aggression, symptomatic treatment is usually required for most patients. Monitoring and reassessment should be ongoing, particularly when pharmacological sedation is required to initially control symptoms.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana, originated in Central Asia but is grown worldwide today. In the United States, it is a controlled substance and is classified as a Schedule I agent (a drug with increased potential for abuse and no known medical use). The Cannabis plant produces a resin containing psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids. The highest concentration of cannabinoids is found in the female flowers of the plant.Clinical trials conducted on medicinal Cannabis are limited. The...
Various environmental strategies have been proposed to reduce the symptomatic distress associated with delirium. These strategies include discrete efforts at reorientation such as a well-lit room with familiar objects, a visible clock or calendar, limited staff changes (and possibly one-on-one nursing care), reduced noise stimulation, and the presence of family.[5,6,7] Although some controversy surrounds the use of physical restraints, their judicious use may sometimes be necessary to prevent self-harm or physical aggression directed at caregivers.
Identification of Underlying Causes and Their Treatment
Delirium reversal is consistent with the goals of care; therefore, the standard management approach in patients with cancer is to search for and treat the reversible precipitants of delirium.[1,2] Although patients with cancer generally have a high level of baseline vulnerability to the development of delirium (owing to factors such as cachexia, hypoalbuminemia, advanced age, and prior dementia), the greatest therapeutic benefit is more likely to be derived from identifying and treating superimposed precipitants with relatively low-burden interventions such as discontinuation or dose reduction of psychoactive medications, subcutaneous fluid administration via hypodermoclysis to treat dehydration, intravenous or subcutaneous bisphosphonate treatment of hypercalcemia, and possibly oral or intravenous antibiotics to treat infection.[9,10] This process typically involves a careful history and physical examination in addition to basic laboratory tests and imaging. If no obvious precipitant is identified in preliminary searching, the decision to proceed with more invasive or elaborate tests is mainly determined by the goals of care.