Aqueous Extracts of Cartilage
In the phase II trial, Catrix was administered by subcutaneous injection only. All patients in this trial had progressive disease following radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Identical individual doses of Catrix were administered to each patient, but the duration of treatment and the total delivered dose varied because of disease progression or death. The minimum duration of Catrix treatment in this study was 4 weeks. One patient (with metastaticrenal cell carcinoma) reportedly had a complete response that lasted more than 39 weeks. The remaining eight patients did not respond to Catrix treatment. The researchers in this trial also investigated whether Catrix had an effect on immune system function in these patients. No consistent trend or change in the numbers, percentages, or ratios of white blood cells (i.e., total lymphocyte counts, total T cell counts, total B cell counts, percentage of T cells, percentage of B cells, and ratio of helper T cells to cytotoxic T cells) was observed, though increased numbers of T cells were found in three patients.
The safety and the efficacy of AE-941/Neovastat, the previously mentioned aqueous extract of shark cartilage, has also been examined in clinical studies.[9,18] Reviewed in [11,10,16] It has been reported that AE-941/Neovastat has little toxicity. Reviewed in [10,11,16] In addition, there is evidence from a randomized clinical trial that examined the effect of AE-941/Neovastat on angiogenesis associated with surgical wound repair that this product contains at least one antiangiogenic component that is orally bioavailable.
AE-941/Neovastat was administered to 331 patients with advanced solid tumors (including lung, prostate, breast, and kidney tumors) in two phase I/II trials. Reviewed in  The results of these trials, however, have not been fully reported. A retrospective analysis involving a subgroup of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that AE-941/Neovastat is able to lengthen the survival of patients with this disease. Reviewed in  Furthermore, in a prospective analysis involving 22 patients with refractory renal cell carcinoma, survival was longer in patients treated with 240 mL/day AE-941/Neovastat than in patients treated with only 60 mL/day.[7,17] Reviewed in 
In 2003, the results of a phase I/II trial of AE-941/Neovastat in 80 patients with advanced NSCLC reported that there was a significant survival advantage for patients receiving the highest doses (2.6 mL/kg/day) of AE-941/Neovastat. A survival analysis of 48 patients with unresectable stage IIIA, IIIB, or IV NSCLC showed a median survival advantage of P = .0026 in patients receiving the highest doses. The trial was principally conducted to explore the safety and efficacy of orally administered AE-941/Neovastat when administered in escalating doses (30, 60, 120, and 240 mL/day). No dose-limiting toxicity was found, and no tumor response was observed.