Antineoplastons (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information
To conduct clinical drug research in the United States, researchers must file an Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA's IND process is confidential, and the existence of an IND application can be disclosed only by an applicant.
There are currently several active clinical trials sponsored and administered by the developer of antineoplastons. Information on these trials can be accessed through the NCI Web site. None of these trials are randomized controlled trials.
Although several possible mechanisms of action and theories about the activity of antineoplastons have been proposed, specifically for antineoplaston A10, none of the theories has been conclusively demonstrated.
One theoretical mechanism of action proposes that antineoplaston A10 is specifically capable of intercalating with DNA at specific base pairs and thereby might interfere with carcinogens binding to the DNA helix. This interweaving of A10 into the DNA helix may be capable of interfering with DNA replication, transcription, or translation.[21,23] The theory is based on the manipulation of molecular models of DNA and A10; however, no published evidence of the creation of this actual molecule or evidence of the properties ascribed to it exists in the medical literature.
Another theoretical mechanism of action is based on the structural similarities of antineoplaston A10 to other experimental anticancer drugs such as carmustine and 5-cinnamoyl-6-aminouracil. A10 has been proposed to bind to chromatin and therefore relate to other anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin that interact directly with DNA.[21,26,27]
At the cellular level, two other mechanisms of action have been proposed to explain inhibition of tumor growth. One theory involves the activity of PAG, a component of some antineoplastons. PAG appears to compete with glutamine for access to the glutamine membrane transporter and may inhibit the incorporation of glutamine into the proteins of neoplastic cells. Because glutamine is essential for the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase where DNA replication occurs, antineoplastons may arrest cell cycle progression and stop cell division. Another theory proposes that phenylacetic acid, also a component of several antineoplastons, inhibits methylation of nucleic acids in cancer cells. The hypomethylation of DNA in cancer cells may lead to terminal differentiation and prevention of tumor growth or progression.
- Burzynski SR: Antineoplastons: biochemical defense against cancer. Physiol Chem Phys 8 (3): 275-9, 1976.
- Burzynski SR: Antineoplastons: history of the research (I). Drugs Exp Clin Res 12 (Suppl 1): 1-9, 1986.
- Burzynski SR: Potential of antineoplastons in diseases of old age. Drugs Aging 7 (3): 157-67, 1995.
- Green S: 'Antineoplastons'. An unproved cancer therapy. JAMA 267 (21): 2924-8, 1992.
- Burzynski SR: The present state of antineoplaston research (1). Integr Cancer Ther 3 (1): 47-58, 2004.
- Burzynski SR: Purified Antineoplaston Fractions and Methods of Treating Neoplastic Disease. US Patent 4558057. December 10, 1985. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office, 1985. Available online. Last accessed August 9, 2012.
- Revelle LK, D'Avignon DA, Wilson JA: 3-[(Phenylacetyl)amino]-2,6-piperidinedione hydrolysis studies with improved synthesis and characterization of hydrolysates. J Pharm Sci 85 (10): 1049-52, 1996.
- Burzynski SR, Stolzmann Z, Szopa B, et al.: Antineoplaston A in cancer therapy. (I). Physiol Chem Phys 9 (6): 485-500, 1977.
- Tsuda H, Hara H, Eriguchi N, et al.: Toxicological study on antineoplastons A-10 and AS2-1 in cancer patients. Kurume Med J 42 (4): 241-9, 1995.
- Burzynski SR: Toxicology studies on antineoplaston AS2-5 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 12 (Suppl 1): 17-24, 1986.
- Burzynski SR, Burzynski B, Mohabbat MO: Toxicology studies on antineoplaston AS2-1 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 12 (Suppl 1): 25-35, 1986.
- Burzynski SR, Kubove E: Toxicology studies on antineoplaston A10 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 12 (Suppl 1): 47-55, 1986.
- Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B: Treatment of hormonally refractory cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp Clin Res 16 (7): 361-9, 1990.
- Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B: Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A5 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 13 (Suppl 1): 37-43, 1987.
- Burzynski SR, Kubove E: Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A3 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 13 (Suppl 1): 17-29, 1987.
- Burzynski SR, Kubove E: Initial clinical study with antineoplaston A2 injections in cancer patients with five years' follow-up. Drugs Exp Clin Res 13 (Suppl 1): 1-11, 1987.
- Sugita Y, Tsuda H, Maruiwa H, et al.: The effect of Antineoplaston, a new antitumor agent on malignant brain tumors. Kurume Med J 42 (3): 133-40, 1995.
- Tsuda H, Sata M, Kumabe T, et al.: Quick response of advanced cancer to chemoradiation therapy with antineoplastons. Oncol Rep 5 (3): 597-600, 1998 May-Jun.
- Kumabe T, Tsuda H, Uchida M, et al.: Antineoplaston treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep 5 (6): 1363-7, 1998 Nov-Dec.
- Buckner JC, Malkin MG, Reed E, et al.: Phase II study of antineoplastons A10 (NSC 648539) and AS2-1 (NSC 620261) in patients with recurrent glioma. Mayo Clin Proc 74 (2): 137-45, 1999.
- Lehner AF, Burzynski SR, Hendry LB: 3-Phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidinedione, a naturally-occurring peptide analogue with apparent antineoplastic activity, may bind to DNA. Drugs Exp Clin Res 12 (Suppl 1): 57-72, 1986.
- Hendry LB, Muldoon TG, Burzynski SR, et al.: Stereochemical modelling studies of the interaction of antineoplaston A10 with DNA. Drugs Exp Clin Res 13 (Suppl 1): 77-81, 1987.
- Michalska D: Theoretical investigations on the structure and potential binding sites of antineoplaston A10 and experimental findings. Drugs Exp Clin Res 16 (7): 343-9, 1990.
- Choi BG, Seo HK, Chung BH, et al.: Synthesis of Mannich bases of antineoplaston A10 and their antitumor activity. Arch Pharm Res 17 (6): 467-9, 1994.
- Burzynski SR: Purified Antineoplaston Fractions and Methods of Treating Neoplastic Disease. US Patent 4559325. December 17, 1985. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office, 1985. Available online. Last accessed August 9, 2012.
- Wood JC, Copland JA, Muldoon TG, et al.: 3-phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidinedione inhibition of rat Nb2 lymphoma cell mitogenesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 197 (4): 404-8, 1991.
- Tsuda H: Inhibitory effect of antineoplaston A-10 on breast cancer transplanted to athymic mice and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. The members of Antineoplaston Study Group. Kurume Med J 37 (2): 97-104, 1990.
- Sołtysiak-Pawłuczuk D, Burzyński SR: Cellular accumulation of antineoplaston AS21 in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett 88 (1): 107-12, 1995.