Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinomas


Combined Thymoma

Combinations of the above histologic types can occur within the same tumor. For these cases, the term, combined thymoma, can be used, followed by a listing of the components and the relative amount of each component.[1]


  1. Rosai J: Histological Typing of Tumours of the Thymus. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2nd ed., 1999.
  2. Okumura M, Ohta M, Tateyama H, et al.: The World Health Organization histologic classification system reflects the oncologic behavior of thymoma: a clinical study of 273 patients. Cancer 94 (3): 624-32, 2002.
  3. Chen G, Marx A, Wen-Hu C, et al.: New WHO histologic classification predicts prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 200 thymoma cases from China. Cancer 95 (2): 420-9, 2002.
  4. Kondo K, Yoshizawa K, Tsuyuguchi M, et al.: WHO histologic classification is a prognostic indicator in thymoma. Ann Thorac Surg 77 (4): 1183-8, 2004.
  5. Rena O, Papalia E, Maggi G, et al.: World Health Organization histologic classification: an independent prognostic factor in resected thymomas. Lung Cancer 50 (1): 59-66, 2005.
  6. Zettl A, Ströbel P, Wagner K, et al.: Recurrent genetic aberrations in thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Am J Pathol 157 (1): 257-66, 2000.
  7. Inoue M, Starostik P, Zettl A, et al.: Correlating genetic aberrations with World Health Organization-defined histology and stage across the spectrum of thymomas. Cancer Res 63 (13): 3708-15, 2003.
  8. Hirabayashi H, Fujii Y, Sakaguchi M, et al.: p16INK4, pRB, p53 and cyclin D1 expression and hypermethylation of CDKN2 gene in thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Int J Cancer 73 (5): 639-44, 1997.
  9. Sasaki H, Kobayashi Y, Tanahashi M, et al.: Ets-1 gene expression in patients with thymoma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 50 (12): 503-7, 2002.
  10. Sasaki H, Yukiue H, Kobayashi Y, et al.: Cten mRNA expression is correlated with tumor progression in thymoma. Tumour Biol 24 (5): 271-4, 2003 Sep-Oct.
  11. Sasaki H, Ide N, Sendo F, et al.: Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein (GPI-80) gene expression is correlated with human thymoma stage. Cancer Sci 94 (9): 809-13, 2003.
  12. Penzel R, Hoegel J, Schmitz W, et al.: Clusters of chromosomal imbalances in thymic epithelial tumours are associated with the WHO classification and the staging system according to Masaoka. Int J Cancer 105 (4): 494-8, 2003.
  13. Suster S, Moran CA: Thymic carcinoma: spectrum of differentiation and histologic types. Pathology 30 (2): 111-22, 1998.
  14. Suster S, Moran CA: Primary thymic epithelial neoplasms showing combined features of thymoma and thymic carcinoma. A clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 20 (12): 1469-80, 1996.
  15. Ogawa K, Toita T, Uno T, et al.: Treatment and prognosis of thymic carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 40 cases. Cancer 94 (12): 3115-9, 2002.
  16. Blumberg D, Burt ME, Bains MS, et al.: Thymic carcinoma: current staging does not predict prognosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115 (2): 303-8; discussion 308-9, 1998.
  17. Levy Y, Afek A, Sherer Y, et al.: Malignant thymoma associated with autoimmune diseases: a retrospective study and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 28 (2): 73-9, 1998.

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: May 28, 2015
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Real Cancer Perspectives
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas