Angle Recession Glaucoma
Angle Recession Glaucoma Overview continued...
Eye injury is a relatively common occurrence in people who are admitted to the hospital or present to the emergency department with major head trauma.
- In 1996, a study found that an annual cumulative incidence of serious eye trauma necessitating hospital admission was approximately 8 per 100,000 cases. Of those cases, approximately 13% had a poor visual outcome; 10.7% had a blinding outcome.
- In 1999, a study reported eye injuries in 55% of all facial injuries and in 16% of all major trauma cases.
Because angle recession glaucoma can have its onset years after the traumatic episode, estimating the resultant visual disability is difficult. Published data of visual outcomes following eye trauma usually only describe short-term results. The long-term incidence of significant vision loss or blindness from posttraumatic glaucoma has not been reported.
Angle recession glaucoma appears to affect all races equally. In general, African Americans may be at an increased risk for all types of glaucoma, particularly primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
- Because of the possible relationship of POAG with angle recession glaucoma, African Americans theoretically may be at an increased risk of glaucoma following eye trauma.
- One urban study published in 1991 found that, at a Los Angeles inner city hospital, African Americans experienced eye injuries more than twice as frequently as Hispanics. However, a comparison of rates of progression to angle recession glaucoma among different races has not yet been reported.
Among men and women, eye trauma occurs more often to men, outnumbering women by a ratio of 4 to 1. Therefore, presumably, angle recession and angle recession glaucoma develop most frequently in men.
- Women appear to be at a greater risk of sustaining eye injuries at home.
- Among children, eye injuries occur more frequently in boys than in girls.
The risk of angle recession as a person gets older has not been formally described.
- Because the onset of symptoms is often delayed following a blunt eye injury, angle recession glaucoma is not usually diagnosed until middle to late adulthood. It may even be misidentified as POAG, since angle abnormalities may not be readily evident on examination and often appear late in the disease course. A distant or even forgotten history of eye trauma, particularly common among elderly persons, may result in the condition being overlooked.
- Among adults, the risk of injury appears to decline steeply with advancing age. Studies of urban populations have indicated that elderly persons sustained only 1.6% of eye trauma, and, for persons older than 65 years, eye injuries were most often due to a fall.
- Angle recession glaucoma has been described in childhood, but eye trauma generally occurs during young adulthood. The annual incidence of pediatric eye injuries has been reported at 15 per 100,000 children.