Retinal detachment is a very serious eye condition that happens when the retina separates from the tissue around it. Since the retina can't work properly under these conditions, you could permanently lose vision if the detached retina isn't repaired promptly.
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You're more likely to get a detached retina if you:
Are severely nearsighted
Have had an eye injury or cataract surgery
Have a family history of retinal detachment
You may have heard the words "retinal tear," too. That's not the same as a retinal detachment.
Retinal tears often happen first. If fluid from within the eye passes through a retinal tear, that can separate the retina from its underlying tissue -- and that's retinal detachment. Retinal detachment may also happen with no warning. That's more likely in elderly or very nearsighted people.
If you are unsure about your risk of retinal detachment, talk to your eye doctor.
What Are the Symptoms of a Detached Retina?
A detached retina doesn't hurt, so look for these symptoms:
Flashes of light
Seeing "floaters" (small flecks or threads)
Darkening of your peripheral (side) vision
If you notice any of those symptoms, contact your eye doctor immediately.
How Is a Detached Retina Diagnosed?
Your health care provider would give you an eye exam, which would include dilating your eyes. That lets them see if your retina is detached.
Early diagnosis is key to preventing vision loss from a detached retina.
How Is a Detached Retina Treated?
There are many ways to treat a detached retina. These include:
Laser (thermal) or freezing (cryopexy). Both of these approaches can repair a tear in the retina if it is diagnosed early enough. This procedure is often done in the doctor's office.
Pneumatic retinopexy. This procedure can be used to treat retinal detachment if the tear is small and easy to close. A small gas bubble is injected into the eye (specifically, into the the clear, gel-like substance between the lens and the retina), where it then rises and presses against the retina, closing the tear. A laser or cryopexy can then be used to seal the tear.
Scleral buckle. This treatment for retinal detachment involves surgically sewing a silicone band (buckle) around the white of the eye (called the sclera) to push the sclera toward the tear until the tear heals. This band is not visible and remains permanently attached. Thermal treatment may then be necessary to seal the tear.
Vitrectomy. This surgery for retinal detachment is used for large tears. During a vitrectomy, the doctor removes the vitreous (the clear, gel-like substance between eye's lens and retina) and replaces it with a saline solution.
Can a Detached Retina Be Prevented?
Yes, in some cases.
Getting an eye exam can flag early changes in your eyes that you may not have noticed. Treating those changes can help.
You should get your eyes checked once a year, or more often if you have conditions such as diabetes that make you more likely to have eye disease. Regular eye exams are also important if you are very nearsighted, as nearsightedness makes retinal detachment more likely.
If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, keeping those conditions under control will help the blood vessels in your retina, which is good for your eyes.
Not sure how often you should get your eyes checked? Ask your eye doctor.
You should also use the appropriate eye protection for certain activities. For instance, you should wear sports goggles with polycarbonate lenses while playing racquetball or certain other sports. You may also need eye protection if you work with machines, chemicals, or tools at work or home.