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    Reviewed by Robert Butterwick, OD on March 07, 2013


    Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Comprehensive Adult Eye and Vision Examination, American Optometric Association, April 28, 2005.

    Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Pediatric Eye and Vision Examination, American Optometric Association, April 25, 2002.

    Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Care of the Adult Patient with Cataract, American Optometric Association, 2004.

    EyeSmart, American Academy of Ophthalmology: "Eye Screening for Children," "Eye Health Information for Teenagers," "Vision Screening Recommendations for Adults Under 40," "Vision Screening Recommendations for Adults 40 to 60," "Vision Screening Recommendations for Adults Over 60," "Tips for Teenage Eye Health," "Tips for Eye Health in Adults Under 40," "Tips for Eye Health in Adults 40 to 60," "Tips for Eye Health in Adults Over 60," "Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment," "Amblyopia: What is Lazy Eye?" "Glaucoma Symptoms," "Refractive Errors in Children," "Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms," "Strabismus Treatment," "Symptom -- Double Vision," "What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?" "What is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy?" "What is Strabismus?" "Who’s at Risk for Cataracts?”

    All About Vision: "Eye Exams for Children," "Eye Floaters, Flashes and Spots."

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatrics, April, 2003.

    American Academy of Pediatrics: "See Red."

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus: "Amblyopia."

    American Diabetes Association: "Eye Complications."

    American Optometric Association: "Recommended Eye Examination Frequency for Pediatric Patients and Adults," "Infant Vision: Birth to 24 Months of Age," "School-aged Vision: 6 to 18 Years of Age," "Conjunctivitis."

    CDC: "Chlamydia -- CDC Fact Sheet," "Gonorrhea -- CDC Fact Sheet," "Syphilis -- CDC Fact Sheet."

    The Eye Digest, University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary: "Risk Factors for Macular Degeneration."

    Higginbotham, E. Archives of Ophthalmology, 2004.

    Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions: "Smoking and AMD."

    KidsHealth: "A Primer on Preemies," "Toxoplasmosis," "Your Child's Vision."

    The Merck Manual: "Floaters," "Hypertensive Retinopathy."

    National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, National Institutes of Health: "Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy."

    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health: "Dry Eye," "Cataract: What You Should Know," "Common vision problems," "Facts About Age-Related Macular Degeneration," "Facts About Retinal Detachment," "Facts About Glaucoma," "Facts About Cataract," "Low Vision: What You Should Know," "National Institutes of Health releases data from largest pediatric eye study."

    National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center: "Osteoporosis and Arthritis: Two Common but Different Conditions."

    Patel, S. American Family Physician, September 15, 2002.

    Science: "Cholesterol Genetically Linked to Eye Disease."

    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences: "Your Baby's Eyes."

    University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center: "Cytomegalovirus Retinitis (CMV Retinitis)."

    This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information:

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