Medical History and Physical Exam for Nearsightedness - Topic Overview
During an exam for
nearsightedness, your doctor will ask
questions about your health, lifestyle, medicines you are taking, and past eye
problems. Answers to questions about your family members can help determine
whether you may have inherited eye problems.
When a child is too young to be aware of blurred vision (younger than
age 7 or 8), the doctor commonly asks the parents questions such as those
listed below. The answers may help the doctor know whether the child is nearsighted.
There is nothing that will prevent glaucoma, but you can slow down its development with early treatment. Therefore, it is very important that you have regular eye exams. Your doctor will perform a series of painless tests -- eye pressure measurements, dilated eye exams, and sometimes visual field testing -- to check for any changes in your eye or in your vision. With early detection, glaucoma can often be controlled with medications, either eye drops or pills. If your glaucoma doesn't respond to...
Is there a family history of nearsightedness? Are
the child's parents or siblings nearsighted? (Most nearsightedness is
Was the child born prematurely? (Premature birth is a
risk factor for nearsightedness.)
Where does the child sit in
classrooms or movies? (A nearsighted child may have difficulty seeing the board
or screen from the back of the room and so may prefer to sit near the
How far from his or her face does the child hold books to
read? [A child with severe nearsightedness will hold books less than
6 in. (15 cm) from the
Does the child enjoy sports and games? (Nearsightedness
makes it harder to enjoy playing sports and games.)
Does the child
squint or frown frequently? (Squinting changes the way light enters the eye and
How is the child's general health? (A number of
diseases may be associated with nearsightedness.)
After about age 8, most children can usually describe the blurred
vision caused by the start of nearsightedness, so these questions may not be
needed as much.
The doctor inspects the eyelids and other external
parts of the eye for signs of disease. Nearsightedness rarely has external
To look for problems with the muscles that control movement of the
eyeball, the doctor will ask the person to look in different
directions (such as up and down). In a child, severe nearsightedness in one eye
can sometimes cause
amblyopia (lazy eye).
Jerky movements of the eyes (nystagmus) may be seen in children who
have poor vision.