By Karen Pallarito
WEDNESDAY, May 1 (HealthDay News) -- As states prepare to expand Medicaid in 2014, a new study provides insight into how that health insurance coverage might affect low-income adults and what it means for access to care and the cost of care.
The study found that having Medicaid -- the U.S. public health insurance program for lower-income Americans -- reduced financial strain related to out-of-pocket health care costs and improved mental health during the first two years of enrollment.
Medicaid also increased prescription drug use and office visits, according to the study, which is based on data from Oregon's 2008 Medicaid expansion.
People with Medicaid spent $1,172 a year more -- about 35 percent more -- on medical care than a comparable group of adults not enrolled in the program.
"One thing it doesn't tell us is what happens three, four, five and six years later, and that's important because so many of the benefits of health care accumulate over time," said Dr. David Meltzer, associate professor of medicine, economics and public policy studies at the University of Chicago, who was not involved in the study.
Expanding Medicaid to millions of uninsured adults is one of the goals of the 2010 health reform law known as the Affordable Care Act.
Oregon's experience offers a rare opportunity to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage by comparing people who made it into a health care lottery program with those who did not. Unable to cover everyone who wanted to enroll in Medicaid, Oregon held lottery drawings, pulling names from a waiting list of nearly 90,000 uninsured people to fill 10,000 openings.
For the study, published online May 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted more than 12,000 in-person interviews and health exams of lottery participants in the Portland, Ore., area about two years after the lottery.