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    Lung Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Lung Cancer

    1. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview

      Separate PDQ summaries on Lung Cancer Prevention, Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment, and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available.Evidence of Benefit Associated With ScreeningScreening by low-dose helical computed tomographyBenefitsThere is evidence that screening persons aged 55 to 74 years who have cigarette smoking histories of 30 or more pack-years and who, if they are former smokers, have quit within the last 15 years reduces lung cancer mortality by 20% and all-cause mortality by 6.7%.Magnitude of Effect: 20% relative reduction in lung cancer–specific mortality. Study Design: Evidence obtained from a randomized controlled trial.Internal Validity: Good.Consistency: Not applicable—one randomized trial to date.External Validity: Fair.HarmsBased on solid evidence, screening would lead to false-positive tests in approximately one-quarter of those screened. Most abnormalities would be monitored

    2. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Lung Cancer Screening

      Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery. Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site. Three screening tests have been

    3. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    4. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

      After small cell lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the chest or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Some of the tests used to diagnose small cell lung cancer are also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.) Other tests and procedures that may be used in the staging process include the following:MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the brain,

    5. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about lung cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

    6. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

      Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of lung cancer screening tests include the following: Finding lung cancer may not improve health or help you live longer.Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have lung cancer that has already spread to other places in your body. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer may have serious side effects. Harms of treatment may happen more often in people who have medical problems caused by heavy or long-term

    7. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Localized Malignant Mesothelioma (Stage I)

      Standard treatment options:[1] Solitary mesotheliomas: Surgical resection en bloc including contiguous structures to ensure wide disease-free margins. Sessile polypoid lesions should be treated with surgical resection to ensure maximal potential for cure.[2] Intracavitary mesothelioma:Palliative surgery (i.e., pleurectomy and decortication) with or without postoperative radiation therapy.Extrapleural pneumonectomy.Palliative radiation therapy.Treatment options under clinical evaluation: Intracavitary chemotherapy following resection.[3,4]Multimodality therapy.[4,5,6]Other clinical trials.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with localized malignant mesothelioma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Antman KH, Li FP, Osteen R, et al.:

    8. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 06 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Stages IA and IB NSCLC TreatmentAdded text to state that a substantial number of patients are ineligible for standard surgical resection because of comorbid conditions that are associated with unacceptably high perioperative risk; observation and radiation therapy may be considered for these patients (cited McGarry et al., Lanni et al., and Grutterset al. as reference 22, reference 23, and reference 24, respectively). Also added text to state that nonrandomized observation studies comparing treatment outcomes associated with resection, radiation therapy, and observation have demonstrated shorter survival times and higher mortality for patients treated with observation only, there are a number of approaches to delivery of radiation therapy, and there are limited reliable data from comparative

    9. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?

      Cancerprevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer,the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully,this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting,scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a ...

    10. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Malignant Mesothelioma

      Histologically, these tumors are composed of fibrous or epithelial elements or both. The epithelial form occasionally causes confusion with peripheral anaplastic lung carcinomas or metastatic carcinomas. Attempts at diagnosis by cytology or needle biopsy of the pleura are often unsuccessful. It can be especially difficult to differentiate mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma on small tissue specimens. Thoracoscopy can be valuable in obtaining adequate tissue specimens for diagnostic purposes.[1] Examination of the gross tumor at surgery and use of special stains or electron microscopy can often help. The special stains reported to be most useful include periodic acid-Schiff diastase, hyaluronic acid, mucicarmine, CEA, and Leu M1.[2] Histologic appearance seems to be of prognostic value, and most clinical studies show that patients with epithelial mesotheliomas have a better prognosis than those with sarcomatous or mixed histology mesotheliomas.[2,3,4]References: Boutin C, Rey F:

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