Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Small Cell Lung Cancer
Before initiating treatment of a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an experienced lung cancer pathologist should review the pathologic material.Pathologic ClassificationThe current classification of subtypes of SCLC includes the following:Small cell carcinoma.Combined small cell carcinoma (i.e., SCLC combined with neoplastic squamous and/or glandular components).SCLC arising from neuroendocrine cells forms one extreme of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung.Neuroendocrine tumors include the following:Low-grade typical carcinoid.Intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid.High-grade neuroendocrine tumors including large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and SCLC.Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and epidemiology, these tumors are classified separately in the World Health Organization (WHO) revised classification. The variant form of SCLC called mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma was not retained in the revised WHO classification.
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Lung Cancer Prevention
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent lung cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following are risk factors for lung cancer:Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking Tobacco smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking all increase the risk of lung cancer. Tobacco smoking causes about 9 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in men and about 8 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in women.Studies have shown that smoking low tar or low nicotine cigarettes does not lower the risk of lung cancer. Studies also show that the risk of lung cancer from smoking cigarettes increases with the
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about lung cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of NSCLC
Malignant non-small cell epithelial tumors of the lung are classified by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). There are three main subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including the following: Squamous cell carcinoma (25% of lung cancers).Adenocarcinoma (40% of lung cancers).Large cell carcinoma (10% of lung cancers). There are numerous additional subtypes of decreasing frequency.WHO/IASLC Histologic Classification of NSCLCSquamous cell carcinoma.Papillary.Clear cell.Small cell.Basaloid.Adenocarcinoma.Acinar.Papillary.Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Nonmucinous.Mucinous.Mixed mucinous and nonmucinous or indeterminate cell type.Solid adenocarcinoma with mucin.Adenocarcinoma with mixed subtypes.Variants.Well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma.Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma.Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.Signet ring adenocarcinoma.Clear cell adenocarcinoma.Large cell carcinoma.Variants.Large cell
Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (11 / 02 / 2012)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.
Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062832-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Lung Cancer Screening
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Malignant Mesothelioma
Histologically, these tumors are composed of fibrous or epithelial elements or both. The epithelial form occasionally causes confusion with peripheral anaplastic lung carcinomas or metastatic carcinomas. Attempts at diagnosis by cytology or needle biopsy of the pleura are often unsuccessful. It can be especially difficult to differentiate mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma on small tissue specimens. Thoracoscopy can be valuable in obtaining adequate tissue specimens for diagnostic purposes. Examination of the gross tumor at surgery and use of special stains or electron microscopy can often help. The special stains reported to be most useful include periodic acid-Schiff diastase, hyaluronic acid, mucicarmine, CEA, and Leu M1. Histologic appearance seems to be of prognostic value, and most clinical studies show that patients with epithelial mesotheliomas have a better prognosis than those with sarcomatous or mixed histology mesotheliomas.[2,3,4]References: Boutin C, Rey F:
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IIIA NSCLC Treatment
Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC are a heterogenous group. Patients may have metastases to ipsilateral mediastinal nodes, potentially resectable T3 tumors invading chest wall, or mediastinal involvement with metastases to peribronchial or hilar lymph nodes (N1). Presentations of disease range from resectable tumors with microscopic metastases to lymph nodes to unresectable, bulky disease involving multiple nodal stations.Prognosis:Patients with clinical stage IIIA-N2 disease have a 5-year overall survival rate of 10% to 15%; however, patients with bulky mediastinal involvement (i.e., visible on chest radiography) have a 5-year survival rate of 2% to 5%. Depending on clinical circumstances, the principal forms of treatment that are considered for patients with stage IIIA NSCLC are radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and combinations of these modalities. Treatment options vary according to the location of the tumor and
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment
Prognosis in this disease is difficult to assess consistently because there is great variability in the time before diagnosis and the rate of disease progression. In large retrospective series of pleural mesothelioma patients,important prognostic factors were found to be:[ 1,2 ] Stage. Age. Performance status. Histology. Various surgical procedures may be possible in selected patients,...
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Lung Cancer Screening; Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment; and Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit are also available. Who is at Risk? Lung cancer risk is largely a function of older age combined with extensive cigarette smoking history. Lung cancer is more common in men than women and in those of lower ...