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    Lung Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Lung Cancer

    1. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of the EvidenceAdded Spira et al. as reference 4.Added Lissowska et al. as reference 23.Added Straif et al. as reference 27.Added Gray et al. as reference 32.Added text evidence indicating an association between constituents of ambient air pollution and increased lung cancer mortality continues to strengthen, with reports from Asia and New Zealand documenting increased risks with exposure to measures of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide (cited Katanoda et al., Cao et al., and Hales et al. as references 37, 38, and 39, respectively).Added World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research as reference 40.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary

    2. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Lung Cancer

      Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung.The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body's cells, as you breathe out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung is slightly larger, and has three lobes. A thin membrane called the pleura surrounds the lungs. Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the right and left lungs. The bronchi are sometimes also involved in lung cancer. Tiny air sacs called alveoli and small tubes called bronchioles make up the inside of the lungs. Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their lobes and airways. Lymph nodes and the diaphragm are also shown. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and passes through the thin membranes of the alveoli and into the bloodstream (see inset).There are two

    3. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 15 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    4. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 06 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer TreatmentAdded text as a list item to state that randomized trials have shown that doses higher than 25 Gy in 10 daily fractions do not improve long-term survival (cited Le Péchoux et al. and Wolfson et al. as references 32 and 33, respectively).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    5. Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview

      Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Lung Cancer Screening; Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment; and Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit are also available. Who is at Risk? Lung cancer risk is largely a function of older age combined with extensive cigarette smoking history. Lung cancer is more common in men than women and in those of lower ...

    6. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?

      Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...

    7. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

      BackgroundIncidence and mortalityLung cancer has a tremendous impact on the health of the American public, with an estimated 228,190 new cases and 159,480 deaths predicted in 2013 in men and women combined.[1] Lung cancer causes more deaths per year in the United States than the next four leading causes of cancer death combined. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates increased markedly throughout most of the last century, first in men and then in women. The trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality rates have closely mirrored historical patterns of smoking prevalence, after accounting for an appropriate latency period. Because of historical differences in smoking prevalence between men and women, lung cancer rates in men have been consistently declining since 1990. The incidence rate in men declined from a high of 102.1 cases per 100,000 men in 1984 to 82.7 cases per 100,000 men in 2009. Consistent declines in women have not been seen.[1,2]

    8. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)Standard treatment options for patients with extensive-stage SCLC include the following:Combination chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.Prophylactic cranial irradiation.Combination chemotherapyChemotherapy for patients with extensive-stage disease (ED) SCLC is commonly given as a two-drug combination of platinum and etoposide in doses associated with at least moderate toxic effects (as in limited-stage [LD] SCLC).[1] Cisplatin is associated with significant toxic effects and requires fluid hydration, which can be problematic in patients with cardiovascular disease. Carboplatin is active in SCLC, is dosed according to renal function, and is associated with less nonhematological toxic effects.Other regimens appear to produce similar survival outcomes but have been studied less extensively or are in less common use.Table 2. . Combination Chemotherapy For Extensive-Stage Small Cell

    9. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      Standard treatment for all but localized mesothelioma is generally not curative. Although some patients will experience long-term survival with aggressive treatment approaches, it remains unclear if overall survival (OS) has been significantly altered by the different treatment modalities or by combinations of modalities. Extrapleural pneumonectomy in selected patients with early stage disease may improve recurrence-free survival, but its impact on OS is unknown.[1] Pleurectomy and decortication can provide palliative relief from symptomatic effusions, discomfort caused by tumor burden, and pain caused by invasive tumor. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Pain for more information.) Operative mortality from pleurectomy/decortication is less than 2%,[2] while mortality from extrapleural pneumonectomy has ranged from 6% to 30%.[1,3]The addition of radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy following surgical intervention has not demonstrated improved survival.[2] The use of radiation therapy in

    10. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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