Medically Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD on April 14, 2022


Image & Content



  1. designer491 / Getty Image



International Myeloma Foundation: “Multiple Myeloma Patient Handbook.”

Mayo Clinic: “Multiple Myeloma.”

Cancer.Net: “Multiple Myeloma: Risk Factors,” “Multiple Myeloma: Symptoms and Signs.”

Clinical Lymphoma and Myeloma: “Liver involvement in multiple myeloma.”

UNC Kidney Center: “Myeloma Kidney.”

American Cancer Society: “Treating Multiple Myeloma.”

FDA: "FDA Approves First Cell-Based Gene Therapy for Adult Patients with Multiple Myeloma.”

UChicago Medicine: “New cellular therapy offers hope for multiple myeloma patients.”

Jason Valent, MD, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland.

Krina Patel,  MD, MSc, Department of Lymphoma, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.