Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a very rare, life-threatening condition that can affect adults and children.
In cavernous sinus thrombosis, a blood clot blocks a vein that runs through a hollow space located underneath the brain and behind the eye sockets. These veins carry blood from the face and head back to the heart.
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The cause of cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually an infection. But other factors may play a role.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a serious condition. It causes death in 30% to 50% of cases.
Symptoms of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombosis may include:
Swelling, redness, or irritation around one or both eyes
Inability to move the eye
Pain or numbness around the face or eyes
Vision loss or double vision
Causes of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is typically caused by an infection that has spread beyond the face, sinuses, or teeth. Less commonly, infections of the ears or eyes may cause cavernous sinus thrombosis.
To contain the infection, the body's immune system creates a clot to prevent bacteria or other pathogens from spreading. The clot increases pressure inside the brain. This pressure can damage the brain and may ultimately cause death.
Rarely, cavernous sinus thrombosis may also be caused by a severe blow to the head.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is more common in people who take certain medications or who have underlying health conditions that may increase their risk for blood clots.
Tests for Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Doctors may order brain scans, including CT and MRI scans, to look for cavernous sinus thrombosis. They may also test blood or spinal fluid to check for signs of infection.
Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Doctors treat cavernous sinus thrombosis with high-dose antibiotics. These are usually given though an intravenous drip.
Corticosteroid medications may also be used to reduce swelling. Blood thinners are sometimes given.
If a patient doesn't respond immediately to medication, surgery is usually necessary to drain fluid from the brain.