Body differences. Compared to men, women have a
wider pelvis, a smaller ACL, a narrower area containing the ACL (femoral
notch), and a greater degree of the knees pointing inward (genu valgum or
knock-knee). These differences increase the risk of an ACL injury, especially
when landing from a jump.
Muscular differences. Compared to men,
women have less muscular strength, use the muscles in the front of the thighs
(quadriceps) more for stability, and take a longer time to develop muscular
force at a given moment. These factors result in greater stress being placed on
Laxity and range of motion. Compared to men, women have a
greater range of motion and "looser" knees (knee laxity), hip rotation, and
knee hyperextension (how far the knee can be stretched or straightened). The
increased hyperextension results in a backward curve of the knee when the leg
is straight. This makes it more difficult for the muscles in the back of the
thigh (hamstrings) to protect the ACL. Looser knees may also make an ACL injury
Some studies suggest that the differences in ligament laxity may be due to changing
hormone levels. These studies have shown that there is change in ligament laxity
during the menstrual cycle and that women are at greater risk for an ACL injury
during the ovulatory phase of their cycle than at other times. Other studies have not found a relationship between the menstrual cycle and laxity in the ACL.1 How hormones affect the ACL is not known.
A toe stuck in an upside-down "V" is probably a hammertoe.
Some symptoms of a hammertoe include:
Putting on a shoe hurts the top of the bent toe.
Corns form on the top of the toe joint.
The toe joint swells and takes on an angry red color.
It's hard to move the toe joint -- and it hurts when you try.
The ball of the foot under the bent toe hurts.