There is no single test that can be used to diagnose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. ADHD is diagnosed after a person has shown some or all of symptoms of ADHD on a regular basis for more than six months. In addition, symptoms must be present in more than one setting. Depending on the number and type of symptoms, a person will be diagnosed with one of three subtypes of ADHD: Primarily Inattentive, Primarily Hyperactive or Combined subtype.
In some people, the signs of ADHD seem obvious -- fidgeting constantly, difficulty paying attention in school or at work, and leaving tasks unfinished. For others, particularly those without behavior problems, ADHD may be more difficult to diagnose.
The symptoms of ADHD may mimic those of other conditions, and sometimes the signs are subtler and harder to distinguish. One psychiatrist, Daniel Amen, MD, believes that to get a truly accurate diagnosis of ADHD, it is necessary to look inside the...
Health care providers, such as pediatricians and child psychologists, can diagnose ADHD with the help of standard guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics or the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). The diagnosis involves gathering information from several sources, including schools, caregivers, and parents. The health care provider will consider how a child's behavior compares with that of other children the same age, and he or she may use standardized rating scales to document these behaviors.
Some symptoms that suggest ADHD in children include inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. Many children with ADHD:
Are in constant motion
Squirm and fidget
Make careless mistakes
Often lose things
Do not seem to listen
Are easily distracted
Do not finish tasks
To diagnose ADHD, your child should receive a full physical exam, including vision and hearing screenings. Also, the FDA has approved the use of the Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System, a noninvasive scan that measures theta and beta brain waves. The theta/beta ratio has been shown to be higher in children and adolescents with ADHD than in children without it. The scan, approved for use in those aged 6 to 17 years, is meant to be used as a part of a complete medical and psychological exam.
In addition, the health care provider should take a complete medical history to screen for other conditions that may affect a child's behavior. Certain conditions that could mimic ADHD or cause the ADHD-like behaviors are:
Recent major life changes (such as divorce, a death in the family, or a recent move)
Diagnosing ADHD in Adults
It is not easy for a health care provider to diagnose ADHD in an adult. Sometimes, an adult will recognize the symptoms of ADHD in himself or herself when a son or daughter is diagnosed. Other times, they will seek professional help for themselves and find that their depression, anxiety, or other symptoms are related to ADHD.
In addition to symptoms of inattention and/or impulsiveness, adults with ADHD may have other problems, including:
Chronic lateness and forgetfulness
Poor organizational skills
Difficulty finishing a task
Unthinking and immediate response; difficulty controlling behavior
If these difficulties are not managed appropriately, they can cause emotional, social, occupational and academic problems in adults.
In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, an adult must have persistent, current symptoms that date to childhood. ADHD symptoms continue as problems into adulthood for up to half of children with ADHD. For an accurate diagnosis, the following are recommended:
A history of the adult's behavior as a child
An interview with the adult's life partner, parent, close friend, or other close associate
A thorough physical exam that may include neurological testing