Just because you have symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, coughing, or difficulty breathing does not mean that you have asthma. Other health conditions have symptoms that may mimic asthma symptoms. Let’s look at some common "asthma mimics."
Along with the pulmonary function tests for asthma, your doctor might perform allergy tests, blood tests, and chest and sinus X-rays. All of these tests help your doctor determine if asthma is indeed present and if there are other conditions affecting it.
What Are the Different Lung Function Tests for Asthma?
Lung function tests for asthma include numerous procedures to diagnose lung problems. The two most common pulmonary function tests for asthma are spirometry and methacholine challenge tests.
Spirometry: This pulmonary function test for asthma is a simple breathing test that measures how much air you can blow out of your lungs and how quickly. It is often used to determine the amount of airway obstruction you have. Spirometry can be done before and after you inhale a short-acting medication called a bronchodilator, such as albuterol. The bronchodilator causes your airways to expand, allowing for air to pass through freely. This test might also be done at future doctor visits to check your progress and to help your doctor determine if and how to adjust your treatment plan.
Methacholine challenge test: This lung function test for asthma is more commonly used in adults than in children. It might be performed if your symptoms and screening spirometry do not clearly or convincingly establish a diagnosis of asthma. Methacholine is an agent that, when inhaled, causes the airways to spasm (contract involuntarily) and narrow if asthma is present. During this test, you inhale increasing amounts of methacholine aerosol mist before and after spirometry. The methacholine test is considered positive, meaning asthma is present, if the lung function drops by at least 20%. A bronchodilator is always given at the end of the test to reverse the effects of the methacholine.