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    Understanding Your Monthly Cycle

    Knowing your menstrual cycle improves your chances of getting pregnant. The first phase starts with the first day of your period or blood flow. Your body releases hormones that makes the eggs inside your ovaries grow. Between day 2 and 14, those hormones also help thicken the lining of your uterus to get ready for a fertilized egg. This is called the follicular stage.

    What Happens During Ovulation

    The average menstrual cycle is 28-32 days. Ovulation usually happens between day 11 and 21 of your cycle. A hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH) surges, triggering the release of the egg that's most ripe. At the same time, your cervical mucus becomes more slippery to help sperm make their way to the egg.

    It's All in the Timing

    Women are born with about 1-2 million eggs, but only release 300 to 400 through ovulation. Usually you release just one egg each month. The egg travels down a fallopian tube, one of the two tubes that connect your ovaries to your uterus. If the timing is right, sperm may fertilize it on its way to the uterus. If fertilization doesn't happen within 24 hours of the egg leaving the ovary, the egg dissolves. Sperm can live for about 3 to 5 days, so knowing when you are ovulating can help you and your partner plan sex for when you're most likely to conceive. 

    Tracking Your Most Fertile Days

    Generally, the highest chance of pregnancy is when sex happens1-2 days before ovulation. If you have a regular 28-day cycle, count back 14 days from when you expect your next period to start. Plan on having sex every other day around that time -- say, days 12 and 14.  Keep in mind that having sex every day may lower a man's sperm count. Your cycle may be longer or shorter, so an online ovulation calculator may help you identify the likely day.

    Tracking Ovulation by Temperature

    After your body releases an egg, the hormone progesterone kicks in to help build and maintain the lining of the uterus. Progesterone causes your body temperature to go up slightly. So taking your temperature with a basal thermometer every morning before getting out of bed can help you figure out if you ovulated. These thermometers are available at the drugstore and are inexpensive, but they aren't as accurate as other methods for tracking ovulation.

    Predicting Ovulation by Hormone

    A surge in LH triggers your ovaries to release the egg. The surge usually happens 36 hours before the egg is released. Ovulation kits check LH levels in your urine to help you pinpoint the day of ovulation. These kits, which are available at drugstores, are convenient and highly accurate. You may want to test 1-2 days before you expect the surge so you can note the rise in LH.

    The Last Phase of Your Monthly Cycle

    During the second half of your menstrual cycle, the hormone progesterone kicks in to help prepare the lining of your uterus for a fertilized egg. If the egg isn't fertilized and doesn't implant, it disintegrates, progesterone levels fall, and about 12 to 16 days later, the egg -- along with blood and tissues from the lining of the uterus -- is shed from the body. That process is menstruation. It usually lasts 3 to 7 days. Then the cycle begins again.

    Ways to Boost Ovulation

    There is growing evidence that links environment to fertility. If you want to boost your chances of getting pregnant, you may want to:

    • Eat foods rich in folic acids.
    • Buy more organic foods and green products.
    • Avoid certain plastics (including plastic wrap).
    • Maintain a healthy body weight through diet and exercise.
    • Avoid alcohol and caffeine.

     

    Weight Affects Fertility

    A study found that women whose body mass index (BMI) was above normal took twice as long to get pregnant as those with a normal BMI. If you're overweight or obese, losing weight can boost your fertility and chances of getting pregnant. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, a drop in weight of 5%-10% can dramatically improve ovulation and pregnancy rates. Obesity can also cause infertility and low testosterone in men. Being significantly underweight can also lead to infertility.

    Age Affects Your Conception Chances

    Fertility goes down with age, especially after the mid-30s. It also lowers the chances that fertility treatments will be successful. Experts say you should talk to your doctor if you're under 35 and have been trying to conceive for more than 12 months, or over 35 and have been trying for more than 6 months.

    Fertility Declines in Older Men, Too

    Studies show that sperm count and sperm movement decrease as men age, as does sexual function. But there isn't a cut-off age that makes a man too old to father a child. One study found that it took men age 45 or older longer to get a woman pregnant once the couple started trying. If your partner is older, you may want to talk to your doctor about ways to boost your chances.

    How Men Can Boost Fertility

    • Manage stress.
    • Avoid alcohol and tobacco.
    • Maintain a proper weight.
    • Eat a diet high in zinc (found in meat, whole grains, seafood, and eggs), selenium (meat, seafood, mushroom, cereals, and Brazil nuts), and vitamin E. 
    • Keep the testicles cool -- no long, hot baths, hot tubs, or saunas, which can reduce the number of sperm.

     

    Treatments for Infertility

    A number of things can cause infertility. The first step is for your doctor to check out you and your partner. Infertility treatments can include fertility drugs to stimulate ovulation and in vitro fertilization, which involves removing eggs from the ovaries, fertilizing them (shown at left), and then implanting them into the uterus.

    How Home Pregnancy Tests Work

    Home pregnancy tests check your urine for the "pregnancy hormone," called hCG, that your body makes once a fertilized egg implants in your uterus. Some of these tests may be able to tell if you're pregnant as early as 5 days before your first missed period. 

    Pregnancy: 5 Early Signs

    • You miss a period.
    • You need to urinate often.
    • You tire easily.
    • You’re nauseous in the morning -- or all day.
    • Your breasts become tender and enlarged.

     

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    Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson, MD on June 13, 2016