Placenta Abruptio - Topic Overview
What is placenta abruptio?
Placenta abruptio is a
pregnancy problem in which the placenta separates too early from the wall of the uterus. The
placenta is a round, flat organ that forms during
pregnancy. It gives the baby food and oxygen from the mother.
- In a normal
pregnancy, the placenta stays firmly attached to the inside wall of the
uterus until after the baby is born.
- In placenta abruptio , the placenta breaks away (abrupts) from the wall of the uterus too
early, before the baby is born.
Placenta abruptio can be very harmful. In rare cases, it can be deadly.
- The baby may be born too early (premature) or at a low birth weight.
- The mother may lose a lot of blood.
Placenta abruptio usually occurs in the third
trimester. But it can happen at any time after the
20th week of pregnancy. It is also called abruptio
placenta or placental abruption.
What causes placenta abruptio?
Doctors aren't sure what causes it, but
some things can raise your risk. These are
called risk factors. Common risk factors for placenta abruptio include:
Less common risk factors include:
- Using cocaine.
- Having a scar from
a past surgery or a
uterine fibroid where the placenta has attached to the
wall of the uterus.
- Having an injury to the uterus. This could
occur because of a car accident, a fall, or physical abuse.
- Premature rupture of membranes for 24 hours or more, especially when there is an infection in
What are the symptoms?
If you have placenta
abruptio, you may notice one or more warning signs. Call your doctor right away
if you are pregnant and you:
- Have light to moderate bleeding from your vagina.
- Have a painful or sore uterus. It
might also feel hard or rigid.
- Have signs of early labor. These include
regular contractions and aches or pains in your lower back or belly.
- Notice that your baby is moving less than usual.
You can't really tell how serious placenta
abruptio is by the
amount of vaginal bleeding. Sometimes the blood gets trapped between the placenta
and the wall of the uterus. So there might be a serious problem even if there is
only a little bleeding.
emergency services right away if you have:
- Sudden or severe pain in your
- Severe vaginal bleeding, such as a gush of blood or passing a clot.
symptoms of shock. These include feeling lightheaded
or like you are going faint; feeling confused, restless, or weak; feeling sick
to your stomach or vomiting; and having fast, shallow breathing.
In rare cases, symptoms of shock are the only
signs of a serious problem.