The number of children diagnosed with autism or related disorders has grown at what many call an alarming rate. In the 1970s and 1980s, about one out of every 2,000 children had autism.
Today, the CDC estimates that one in 150 8-year-olds in the U.S. has an autism spectrum disorder, or ASD. This expanded definition refers not only to autism but also to a collection of brain development disorders such as Asperger's syndrome and a condition known as pervasive developmental disorder -- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Though all the disorders share some symptoms, they are different in other ways, including the timeline of symptoms and the severity, according to the CDC.
Alison Singer's days became a blur eight years ago when her daughter Jodie, now nearly 11, was diagnosed with autism.
Singer left the workforce temporarily and focused on her daughter. "I set up the home program -- 40 hours a week of applied behavioral analysis therapy," says Singer, referring to a common autism treatment. There were appointments for evaluations to schedule -- and then get to -- and numerous decisions to make. "Your life becomes dominated by autism," Singer remembers. "I used to...
The apparent rise in cases triggers two burning questions for parents, physicians, and scientists:
Is autism truly on the rise, or do the new statistics simply reflect the growing awareness of the condition, the expanded definition, and other factors?
If autism is on the rise, as most experts believe, what is causing the increase?
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Autism: A True Increase or Semantics?
The jump in autism cases has spawned not only alarm but also debate about whether the number of children with autism could have increased that much in a relatively brief time.
"There's a lot of controversy about that," says Jeff Milunsky, MD, director of clinical genetics and associate director of the Center for Human Genetics at Boston University.
Two researchers who tracked the rate of autism in children born in the same area of England from 1992 to 1995 and then from 1996 to 1998 found that the rates were comparable, and concluded that the incidence of autism was stable. The study was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2005.
But, Milunsky says, several studies have documented an increase in the U.S.
In a recent report in the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood, Milunsky and his colleagues point to several studies finding an increase in autism rates. In 2003, for instance, a large study conducted in Atlanta found that one in 166 to one in 250 children had autism, according to a report published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.