While autism spectrum disorder appears on many radar screens today, this wasn't the case when Temple Grandin was growing up in the 1950s. Grandin, now 60, didn't utter a word until she was 3 1/2 years old. As a result, she was labeled "autistic," and her parents were told she should be institutionalized. Fortunately, Grandin's story does not end there.
With the help of early education and a caring nanny, Grandin eventually learned to speak and flourish despite Asperger's syndrome, a developmental disorder marked by severe difficulties in understanding how to interact socially. Today she holds a PhD in animal science, is a professor of animal sciences at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colo., and the author of several books including Emergence: Labeled Autistic and Thinking In Pictures. Grandin is also one of the few livestock-handling equipment designers in the world and has designed the facilities in which half the cattle are handled in the United States.
The number of children diagnosed with autism or related disorders has grown at what many call an alarming rate. In the 1970s and 1980s, about one out of every 2,000 children had autism.
Today, the CDC estimates that one in 150 8-year-olds in the U.S. has an autism spectrum disorder, or ASD. This expanded definition refers not only to autism but also to a collection of brain development disorders such as Asperger's syndrome and a condition known as pervasive developmental disorder -- not otherwise...
As a result of her experiences, Grandin has a lot to say about how to reach children on the autism spectrum and encourage them to meet their full potential.
How did you learn to communicate?
When I was 3, I looked terrible. I was fully autistic. Early education helped me. I had a nanny who spent all day with me and my sister teaching me how to play games and interact with others.
You were diagnosed with autism in 1950. How have things changed for children diagnosed with autism today?
I think the younger kids have much better services available to them today (including speech therapy, physical therapy, and occupational therapy). The most important thing for autistic children is to have 20 hours a week of one-on-one interaction with an effective teacher. Still, some kids are very low-functioning and won't ever have a job and will have to live in a supervised environment, but if they get the right training early, they can do simple things for themselves.
What if parents can't afford or are not eligible for such services?
If you can't afford a nanny or services, go to the local church and get grandmothers or students to play games with the kids and interact with them. The worst thing you can do with a young autistic child is let them sit in a corner and watch TV. You have to expose them to a lot of different things and get them out doing a lot of stuff.