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Autism Spectrum Disorders Health Center

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Asperger's Syndrome - Topic Overview

Asperger's syndrome is a developmental disorder that makes it very hard to interact with other people. Your child may find it hard to make friends because he or she is socially awkward.

People with Asperger's syndrome have some traits of autism. For example, they may have poor social skills, prefer routine, and not like change. But unlike those who have autism, children with Asperger's syndrome usually start to talk before 2 years of age, when speech normally starts to develop.

Asperger's syndrome is a lifelong condition, but symptoms tend to improve over time. Adults with this condition can learn to understand their own strengths and weaknesses. And they can improve their social skills.

Both Asperger's syndrome and autism belong to the group of disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), once known as pervasive developmental disorders. You may hear the term ASD used to describe Asperger's syndrome.

The exact cause of Asperger's syndrome is not known. And there is no known way to prevent it. It tends to run in families. So researchers are doing studies to look for a genetic cause. Asperger's syndrome is more common in males than in females.

Asperger's syndrome is usually noticed at age 3 or later. Symptoms vary, so no two children are the same. Children with Asperger's:

  • Have a very hard time relating to others. It doesn't mean that they avoid social contact. But they lack instincts and skills to help them express their thoughts and feelings and notice others' feelings.
  • May be bothered by loud noises, lights, or strong tastes or textures.
  • Like fixed routines. Change is hard for them.
  • May not recognize verbal and nonverbal cues or understand social norms. For example, they may stare at others, not make eye contact, or not know what personal space means.
  • May have speech that's flat and hard to understand because it lacks tone, pitch, and accent. Or they may have a formal style of speaking that's advanced for their age.
  • May lack coordination; have unusual facial expressions, body postures, and gestures; or be somewhat clumsy.
  • May have poor handwriting or have trouble with other motor skills, such as riding a bike.
  • May have only one or a few interests, or they may focus intensely on a few things. For example, they may show an unusual interest in snakes or star names or may draw very detailed pictures.
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