"I used to have a tremendous memory," Maria Luisa Bravo, 72, says
But a decade ago, the San Francisco woman started having memory loss that
comes with aging. She forgot phone numbers, passages that she had just read in
books, even where she parked her car. Often, she received parking tickets
because she forgot to move her car on street-cleaning days.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when an impact to the head results in disruption of brain functioning. While post-TBI physical impairments can hinder functional independence, the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, psychosocial, and personality changes associated with TBI frequently lead to even greater problems. Comprehensive evaluation and treatment are the foundation to optimizing outcome after TBI, as the complex functions affected,...
"I am very, extremely upset that I'm losing my memory," she
Can science offer any real help to older people such as Bravo?
Henry Mahncke, PhD, believes so. Mahncke is vice president of research and
outcomes at Posit Science Corp. Six months ago, Bravo signed on for the
company's "Brain Fitness Program" computer exercises to try to improve
"Brain fitness" is an emerging concept, and researchers such as
Mahncke are at the forefront. In the past few years, new software companies
have sprung up to cater to seniors and the baby boomers not far behind them.
Their mission: to help people keep a mental edge throughout life -- even into
"I think medical technology's going to let us live longer and
longer," Mahncke says. "And I think we should be able to keep people's
Posit Science says that it builds its programs upon brain plasticity, the
brain's ability to create new neural pathways and connections in response to
new experiences. "The brain is a complex, adaptive system," says
Mahncke, who serves as vice president of research and outcomes. And plasticity
can happen at any age, even in the older years.
Nintendo's Brain Age
The notion of brain fitness has even invaded popular culture. In April,
Nintendo released Brain Age, a Japanese-inspired, handheld video game to help
users' minds stay active. While the game is marketed for all ages, the buyers
-- now numbering more than 655,000 in the U.S. -- have mainly been older
people, Nintendo of America spokeswoman Amber McCollom writes in an email.
Players take a nonscientific test that calculates a "brain age" for the
purposes of the game. Through a series of puzzles and other challenges, they
try to shave years or even decades off their brain age score.
A catchy gimmick, but people shouldn't take it seriously. "The notion
that there's a brain age isn't well accepted," says Timothy Salthouse, PhD,
a University of Virginia psychology professor who is an expert on cognitive
aging. Calculating brain age is difficult because it depends on many different
variables, and a person can perform well on one variable and poorly on another,
McCollum likens Brain Age to crossword puzzles. "We're not claiming that
it does anything more than keep the mind active while letting people have
Software to Enhance Mental Ability
The real heavy lifting is happening at places such as Posit Science, a
well-funded, serious endeavor backed by brain researchers and scientific
advisors from universities, such as Johns Hopkins, Yale, Stanford, MIT, the
University of California, and several brain research institutions abroad. The
four-year-old company has also received grant money from the National
Institutes of Health.