For every milestone in breast cancer research, there are countless men and women to thank. Through their creativity and dogged determination, women have hope in preventing, living with, even curing breast cancer.
Here are just a few of these courageous researchers, who bucked traditional thinking and showed proof of their theories:
In breast cancer, lumpectomy (wide local excision) and partial mastectomy are breast-conserving operations in which the surgeon removes the tumor together with some normal breast tissue surrounding it. Breast-conserving procedures may be done with local anesthesia or under general anesthesia (being put to sleep) on an outpatient basis.
Women who have this type of breast cancer surgery usually:
Have a single breast cancer less than five centimeters in diameter
Have enough tissue so that removing...
1902 -- The radical mastectomy was first performed and was the only treatment for breast cancer for more than 80 years. It involved removing a large portion of the chest, including the entire breast, lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles.
1955 -- Charles Huggins, PhD, pioneered breast cancer research showing that sex hormones were involved. He received the Nobel Prize in 1966.
Among those visionary breast cancer researchers: Bernard Fisher, MD, director of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, and Umberto Veronesi, MD, researcher with the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy. Both launched long-term studies of these techniques.
1970s -- Brian McMahon, MD, showed that breast cancer was related to length of a woman's lifetime exposure to reproductive hormones.
1970s -- Joseph Bertino, MD, and Robert Schimke, MD, worked out mechanisms of drug resistance.
1970s -- Peter Vogt, MD, identified the first cancer-causing gene (oncogene) in a chicken tumor virus.
1974 -- V. Craig Jordan, PhD, showed that the drug tamoxifen could prevent breast cancer in rats by binding to the estrogen receptor. Four years later, tamoxifen was approved by the FDA for treating estrogen-sensitive breast cancers.
1976 -- J. Michael Bishop, MD, and Harold Varmus, MD, discovered oncogenes in normal DNA, suggesting that a normal gene already present in the cell has the potential of becoming an oncogene. They were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1989.