For every milestone in breast cancer research, there are
countless men and women to thank. Through their creativity and dogged
determination, women have hope in preventing, living with, even curing breast
Here are just a few of these courageous researchers, who bucked
traditional thinking and showed proof of their theories:
In inflammatory breast cancer, cancer has spread to the skin of the breast and the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm. The redness and warmth occur because the cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin. The skin of the breast may also show the dimpled appearance called peau d'orange (like the skin of an orange). There may not be any lumps in the breast that can be felt. Inflammatory breast cancer may be stage IIIB, stage IIIC, or stage IV.
Inflammatory breast cancer...
1902 -- The radical mastectomy was first performed and was the
only treatment for breast cancer for more than 80 years. It involved removing a
large portion of the chest, including the entire breast, lymph nodes, and chest
1955 -- Charles Huggins, PhD, pioneered breast cancer research
showing that sex hormones were involved. He received the Nobel Prize in
1955 -- Emil J. Freireich, MD, and colleagues designed the
first scientific clinical trial for combination cancer chemotherapy.
1966 -- Elwood Jensen, MD, and Eugene Sombre, PhD, described
proteins that bind to sex hormones and help carry out their function.
1966 -- Henry Lynch, MD, first identified a hereditary
1970s -- A handful of forward-thinking surgeons began believing
that simple mastectomy -- removal of only the breast itself -- was just as
effective as a radical mastectomy.
Surgeons also began studying lumpectomy followed by radiation
therapy as an option to radical mastectomy.
Among those visionary breast cancer researchers: Bernard
Fisher, MD, director of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel
Project, and Umberto Veronesi, MD, researcher with the European Institute of
Oncology in Milan, Italy. Both launched long-term studies of these
1970s -- Brian McMahon, MD, showed that breast cancer was
related to length of a woman's lifetime exposure to reproductive hormones.
1970s -- Joseph Bertino, MD, and Robert Schimke, MD, worked out
mechanisms of drug resistance.
1970s -- Peter Vogt, MD, identified the first cancer-causing
gene (oncogene) in a chicken tumor virus.
1974 -- V. Craig Jordan, PhD, showed that the drug tamoxifen
could prevent breast cancer in rats by binding to the estrogen receptor. Four
years later, tamoxifen was approved by the FDA for treating estrogen-sensitive
1976 -- J. Michael Bishop, MD, and Harold Varmus, MD,
discovered oncogenes in normal DNA, suggesting that a normal gene already
present in the cell has the potential of becoming an oncogene. They were
awarded a Nobel Prize in 1989.