Menopause Treatment a Cancer Risk?
Study Shows Estrogen Plus Testosterone May Up Risk of Breast Cancer
July 24, 2006 -- Women who take the hormones estrogen and testosterone to
flashes, decreased libido, and other symptoms of menopausemay
be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer, say researchers.
Older studies have shown that estrogen plus progesterone increases breast cancerrisk,
but until now there has been little research on what effect testosterone has on
such risk. While considered the male sex hormone, women, too, have testosterone
and as they age, their natural levels decline.
Some evidence suggests that many of the symptoms of menopause -- including
decreased sex drive, worse moods, and poorer quality of life -- may be related
to a decline in testosterone. And the use of testosterone as part of hormone
replacement therapy appears to be on the rise. The number of women in the study
who used estrogen-plus-testosterone therapy increased dramatically from 33 in
1988 to 550 in 1998.
Long-Term Effects of Hormone Therapy
In the new study, in the July 24 issue of the Archives of Internal
Medicine, researchers led by Rulla M. Tamimi, ScD, of Brigham and Women's
Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, and colleagues studied the
long-term effects of estrogen-plus-testosterone therapy in 121,700 women who
were part of the Nurses' Health Study. The women completed an initial
questionnaire and follow-up surveys every two years that included questions
about menopausal status, medical conditions, and the use of hormone
There were 4,610 cases of breast cancer among postmenopausal women during 24
years of follow-up. Women who were currently taking estrogen plus testosterone
had a 77% higher risk of developing breast cancer than those who had never used
hormone therapy. By contrast, women currently using estrogen showed a 15%
increased risk of breast cancer and those who were taking estrogen plus
progesterone had a 58% increased risk of breast cancer.
What's more, women who had gone through menopause naturally and took
estrogen plus testosterone had 2.5 times the risk of breast cancer than those
who had never used hormone therapy. Estrogen-only therapy showed a 23%
increased risk and estrogen-plus-progesterone therapy was linked to a 66%
increased risk in those women with natural menopause.
Exactly how testosterone may increase the risk of breast cancer is not fully
understood, but researchers speculate that enzymes in the breast tissue may
convert testosterone to estradiol, an estrogen-like hormone that may contribute
to the development of breast cancer.
Risks vs. Benefits
So what's a woman to do?
"Given the substantial evidence implicating combined estrogen plus
progestin therapy in breast cancerand
the results of the present study regarding estrogen plus testosterone therapy,
women and their physicians should reconsider use and, more specifically,
long-term use of these therapies," the researchers conclude. "Although
postmenopausal therapies may provide improvement with respect to sexual
functioning, general well-being, and bone health, the increased risk of breast
outweigh these benefits."