Only High-Risk Women Need Breast Cancer Gene Test: Experts
Even those with family history of BRCA mutations should talk with professionals first, panel says
By Dennis Thompson
MONDAY, Dec. 23, 2013 (HealthDay News) -- Nine of 10 women do not need and should not receive genetic testing to see if they are at risk for breast or ovarian cancer, an influential panel of health experts announced Monday.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) reaffirmed its previous recommendation from 2005 that only a limited number of women with a family history of breast cancer be tested for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that can increase their cancer risk.
Even then, these women should discuss the test with both their family doctor and a genetic counselor before proceeding with the BRCA genetic test, the panel said.
"Not all people who have positive family histories should be tested. It's not at all simple or straightforward," said Dr. Virginia Moyer, the task force's chair.
Interest among women in genetic testing for breast cancer has greatly increased, partially due to Hollywood film star Angelina Jolie's announcement in May that she underwent a double mastectomy because she carried the BRCA1 mutation.
A Harris Interactive/HealthDay poll conducted a few months after Jolie's announcement found as many as 6 million women in the United States planned to get medical advice about having a preventive mastectomy or ovary removal because of the actress' personal decision.
On average, mutations of the BRCA genes can increase breast cancer risk between 45 percent to 65 percent, according to the American Cancer Society.
The problem is that there are myriad mutations of the BRCA gene. Doctors have identified some mutations that increase breast cancer risk, but there are many more BRCA mutations where the increased risk is either low or as yet unknown.
"The test is not something that comes back positive or negative. The test comes back a whole lot of different ways, and that has to be interpreted," Moyer said. "There are a variety of mutations. Often you get what appears to be a negative test but we call it an 'uninformative' negative because it just doesn't tell you anything. A woman would walk away from that with no idea, but worried, and that's not helpful."
Earlier this month, the genetic testing company 23andMe announced it's no longer offering health information with its home-based kit service after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned that the test is a medical device that requires government approval.
The new task force recommendations will be published online Dec. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
The task force's judgment carries heavy weight within the health care industry. For instance, the federal government's list of preventive health care measures that insurers must provide free of charge under the Affordable Care Act is based on USPSTF recommendations.