Red Meat May Raise Breast Cancer Risk, Study Suggests
Eating more fish, nuts, poultry may help, but findings don't prove cause-and-effect
By Steven Reinberg
TUESDAY, June 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Women who ate the most red meat increased their risk for breast cancer by nearly 25 percent, a 20-year study of nearly 89,000 women suggests.
On the flip side, however, replacing a daily serving of red meat with a combination of fish, legumes, nuts and poultry appeared to lower the risk of breast cancer by 14 percent, the researchers said.
"Cutting down processed meat, limiting intake of red meat, and substituting a combination of poultry, fish, legumes and nuts as protein sources for red meat during early life seems beneficial for the prevention of breast cancer," said lead researcher Maryam Farvid, who's with the Harvard School of Public Health's Department of Nutrition.
Compared with women who had one serving of red meat a week, those who ate 1.5 servings a day appeared to have a 22 percent higher risk of breast cancer. And each additional daily serving of red meat seemed to increase the risk of breast cancer another 13 percent, Farvid said.
Eating more poultry, however, lowered the risk, the researchers noted. Substituting one serving a day of poultry for one serving a day of red meat reduced the risk of breast cancer by 17 percent overall and by 24 percent among postmenopausal women, the researchers found.
"Decreasing consumption of red meat and replacing it with other healthy dietary sources of protein, such as chicken, turkey, fish, beans, lentils, peas and nuts, may have important public health implications," she said.
"Reduction of red meat intake in the diet not only decreases the risk of breast cancer but also decreases the risk of other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and other kind of cancers, as well," Farvid said.
Because this is a so-called observational study, it doesn't prove that more red meat increases breast cancer risk. And the biological reasons behind the apparent red meat-breast cancer connection isn't clear, she said.
A representative of the meat industry took issue with the findings.
"As several researchers who have analyzed this study have already pointed out, the totality of the available evidence indicates that red meat consumption has little or no effect on breast cancer risk," said Betsy Booren, vice president of scientific affairs at the American Meat Institute Foundation.
"This study, with extremely weak associations based on self-reported food intake, doesn't add much to our current knowledge on this complex condition," she added.
However, Farvid said that red meat has been thought to increase the risk of breast cancer in different ways. Cancer-causing "byproducts created during high temperature cooking of red meat" may be to blame, she said. Another possibility: hormones used to increase growth of beef cattle. Also, she noted, "food preservatives such as nitrate and nitrite in processed meat can also be associated with elevated risk of breast cancer."