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Description of Evidence

Incidence of Outcomes Per 1,000 Women continued...

Fenretinide [146] is a vitamin A analog that has been shown to reduce breast carcinogenesis in preclinical studies. A phase III Italian trial compared the efficacy of a 5-year intervention with fenretinide versus no treatment in 2,972 women, aged 30 to 70 years, with surgically removed stage I breast cancer or DCIS. At a median observation time of 97 months, there were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (P = .642), ipsilateral breast cancer (P = .177), incidence of distant metastases, nonbreast malignancies, and all-cause mortality.[114]

Active and passive cigarette smoking

The potential role of active cigarette smoking in the etiology of breast cancer has been studied for more than three decades with no clear-cut evidence of an association.[147] Since the mid-1990s, studies of cigarette smoking and breast cancer have more carefully accounted for secondhand smoke exposure. Some of these studies have observed both active and passive smoking to be associated with breast cancer risk, but the consensus of most review groups continues to be that the body of evidence does not clearly demonstrate that either active or passive cigarette smoking contributes to breast cancer risk.[147,148]

A recent meta-analysis suggests that there is no overall association between passive smoking and breast cancer and that study methodology (ascertainment of exposure after breast cancer diagnosis) may be responsible for the apparent risk associations seen in some studies.[149]

Statins

Two well-conducted meta-analyses of RCTs [150] and RCTs plus observational studies [151] found no evidence that statin use either increases or decreases the risk of breast cancer.

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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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