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Bladder Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

  1. Stage III Bladder Cancer

    Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Stage III bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications: T3a,..

  2. Stage IV Bladder Cancer

    Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Stage IV bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications: T4b,...

  3. Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Approximately 10% of patients having cystectomy for bladder cancer can be expected to have or to later develop clinical neoplasm of the urethra distal to the urogenital diaphragm. An autopsy series of patients having had cystectomy for bladder cancer documented histologic evidence of urethral neoplasm in 20% of the patients. A review from the Royal Marsden Hospital showed that those patients ...

  4. Get More Information From NCI

    Get more information on urethral cancer treatment. How to contact the National Cancer Institute (NCI) via phone (1-800-4-Cancer), online, or mail. Plus, details on how to search the NCI web site, and how to order NCI publications.

  5. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),and some are being tested in clinical trials. Before starting treatment,patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. A treatment clinical trial is a research ...

  6. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    After bladder cancer has been diagnosed,tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the bladder or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the bladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the .

  7. Changes to This Summary (08 / 10 / 2012)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  8. Cellular Classification of Urethral Cancer

    In an analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 1973 to 2002, the most common histologic types of urethral cancer were:[1]Transitional cell (55%).Squamous cell (21.5%).Adenocarcinoma (16.4%).Other cell types, such as melanoma, were extremely rare.[1]The female urethra is lined by transitional cell mucosa proximally and stratified squamous cells distally. Therefore, transitional cell carcinoma is most common in the proximal urethra and squamous cell carcinoma predominates in the distal urethra. Adenocarcinoma may occur in both locations and arises from metaplasia of the numerous periurethral glands. The male urethra is lined by transitional cells in its prostatic and membranous portion and stratified columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium in the bulbous and penile portions. The submucosa of the urethra contains numerous glands. Therefore, urethral cancer in the male can manifest the histological characteristics of transitional cell carcinoma,

  9. Proximal Urethral Cancer

    Female Proximal Urethral CancerLesions of the proximal or entire length of the urethra are usually associated with invasion and a high incidence of pelvic nodal metastases. The prospects for cure are limited except in the case of small tumors. The best results have been achieved with exenterative surgery and urinary diversion with 5-year survival rates ranging from 10% to 20%. To increase the resectability rate of gross tumor and decrease local recurrence, in an effort to shrink tumor margins, it is reasonable to recommend adjunctive, preoperative, radiation therapy. Pelvic lymphadenectomy is performed concomitantly. Ipsilateral inguinal node dissection is indicated only if biopsy specimens of ipsilateral palpable adenopathy are positive on frozen section. For tumors that do not exceed 2 cm in greatest dimension, radiation alone, nonexenterative surgery alone, or a combination of the two may be sufficient to provide an excellent outcome.It is reasonable to consider removal of part of

  10. Stage II Bladder Cancer

    Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Stage II bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications: T2a,...

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