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Recurrent Neuroblastoma

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    Chemotherapy consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen, as used in a prior COG trial (COG-P9641).

    Any child initially categorized as low risk who is older than 1 year at the time of metastatic recurrent or progressive disease who is not in the stage 4S pattern usually has a poor prognosis and should be treated with an aggressive regimen of combination chemotherapy consisting of very high doses of the drugs listed above, and often also including ifosfamide and high-dose cisplatin. Both myeloablative therapy and postchemotherapy retinoic acid may improve outcome of newly diagnosed patients with a poor prognosis.[12] These modalities are commonly employed in the treatment of patients with a recurrence that augurs a poor prognosis.

    Recurrent Neuroblastoma in Patients Initially Classified as Intermediate Risk

    (Risk categories are defined in Table 1 in the Stage Information section of the summary.)

    Local/regional recurrence

    The current standard of care is based on the experience from the COG Intermediate-Risk treatment plan (COG-A3961). Local regional recurrence of neuroblastoma with favorable biology that occurs more than 3 months after completion of 12 weeks of chemotherapy may be treated surgically. If resection is less than near total, then 12 additional weeks of chemotherapy may be given. Chemotherapy consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen, as used in a prior COG trial (COG-A3961).

    Metastatic recurrence

    If the recurrence is metastatic and/or occurs while on chemotherapy or within 3 months of completing chemotherapy and/or has unfavorable biologic properties, the prognosis is poor and the patient should be treated with an aggressive regimen of combination chemotherapy consisting of very high doses of the drugs listed above, and often also including ifosfamide and high-dose cisplatin. Both myeloablative therapy and postchemotherapy retinoic acid may improve outcome of newly diagnosed patients with a poor prognosis.[12] These modalities are commonly employed in the treatment of patients with a recurrence that augurs a poor prognosis.

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